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Testicular Microlithiasis
Alice Fung, MD; Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Testicular microlithiasis (TM): ≥ 5 nonshadowing, ≤ 3-mm testicular echogenicities per US image

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                Selected References

                                1. Ocal O et al: Sonographic diagnosis of large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor. J Ultrason. 19(77):161-4, 2019
                                2. Fonseca EKUN et al: Snowstorm testes. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(8):2197-8, 2017
                                3. Thompson JP et al: Testicular microlithiasis in the setting of primary extragonadal germ cell tumor: a case series. Ultrasound Q. 33(1):41-5, 2017
                                4. Trout AT et al: Association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular neoplasia: large multicenter study in a pediatric population. Radiology. 285(2):576-83, 2017
                                5. Winter TC et al: Testicular microlithiasis: what should you recommend? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 206(6):1164-9, 2016
                                6. Richenberg J et al: Testicular microlithiasis imaging and follow-up: guidelines of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee. Eur Radiol. 25(2):323-30, 2015
                                7. Wang T et al: A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence of testicular cancer. Urol J. 12(2):2057-64, 2015
                                8. Cooper ML et al: Testicular microlithiasis in children and associated testicular cancer. Radiology. 270(3):857-63, 2014
                                9. Chiang LW et al: Implications of incidental finding of testicular microlithiasis in paediatric patients. J Pediatr Urol. 8(2):162-5, 2012
                                10. Richenberg J et al: Testicular microlithiasis: is there a need for surveillance in the absence of other risk factors? Eur Radiol. 22(11):2540-6, 2012
                                11. Silveri M et al: Management and follow-up of pediatric asymptomatic testicular microlithiasis: are we doing it well? Urol J. 8(4):287-90, 2011
                                12. DeCastro BJ et al: Asymptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis. J Urol. 179(4):1420-3; discussion 1423, 2008
                                13. Costabile RA: How worrisome is testicular microlithiasis? Curr Opin Urol. 17(6):419-23, 2007
                                14. Dagash H et al: Testicular microlithiasis: what does it mean clinically? BJU Int. 99(1):157-60, 2007
                                15. Lam DL et al: Testicular microlithiasis: our experience of 10 years. J Ultrasound Med. 26(7):867-73, 2007
                                16. Miller FN et al: Testicular calcification and microlithiasis: association with primary intra-testicular malignancy in 3,477 patients. Eur Radiol. 17(2):363-9, 2007
                                17. Parenti GC et al: Association between testicular microlithiasis and primary malignancy of the testis: our experience and review of the literature. Radiol Med. 112(4):588-96, 2007
                                18. Shanmugasundaram R et al: Testicular microlithiasis: is there an agreed protocol? Indian J Urol. 23(3):234-9, 2007
                                19. Kocaoglu M et al: Testicular microlithiasis in pediatric age group: ultrasonography findings and literature review. Diagn Interv Radiol. 11(1):60-5, 2005
                                20. Peterson AC et al: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in an asymptomatic population of men 18 to 35 years old. J Urol. 166(6):2061-4, 2001
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Testicular microlithiasis (TM): ≥ 5 nonshadowing, ≤ 3-mm testicular echogenicities per US image

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Ocal O et al: Sonographic diagnosis of large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor. J Ultrason. 19(77):161-4, 2019
                                                              2. Fonseca EKUN et al: Snowstorm testes. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(8):2197-8, 2017
                                                              3. Thompson JP et al: Testicular microlithiasis in the setting of primary extragonadal germ cell tumor: a case series. Ultrasound Q. 33(1):41-5, 2017
                                                              4. Trout AT et al: Association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular neoplasia: large multicenter study in a pediatric population. Radiology. 285(2):576-83, 2017
                                                              5. Winter TC et al: Testicular microlithiasis: what should you recommend? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 206(6):1164-9, 2016
                                                              6. Richenberg J et al: Testicular microlithiasis imaging and follow-up: guidelines of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee. Eur Radiol. 25(2):323-30, 2015
                                                              7. Wang T et al: A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence of testicular cancer. Urol J. 12(2):2057-64, 2015
                                                              8. Cooper ML et al: Testicular microlithiasis in children and associated testicular cancer. Radiology. 270(3):857-63, 2014
                                                              9. Chiang LW et al: Implications of incidental finding of testicular microlithiasis in paediatric patients. J Pediatr Urol. 8(2):162-5, 2012
                                                              10. Richenberg J et al: Testicular microlithiasis: is there a need for surveillance in the absence of other risk factors? Eur Radiol. 22(11):2540-6, 2012
                                                              11. Silveri M et al: Management and follow-up of pediatric asymptomatic testicular microlithiasis: are we doing it well? Urol J. 8(4):287-90, 2011
                                                              12. DeCastro BJ et al: Asymptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis. J Urol. 179(4):1420-3; discussion 1423, 2008
                                                              13. Costabile RA: How worrisome is testicular microlithiasis? Curr Opin Urol. 17(6):419-23, 2007
                                                              14. Dagash H et al: Testicular microlithiasis: what does it mean clinically? BJU Int. 99(1):157-60, 2007
                                                              15. Lam DL et al: Testicular microlithiasis: our experience of 10 years. J Ultrasound Med. 26(7):867-73, 2007
                                                              16. Miller FN et al: Testicular calcification and microlithiasis: association with primary intra-testicular malignancy in 3,477 patients. Eur Radiol. 17(2):363-9, 2007
                                                              17. Parenti GC et al: Association between testicular microlithiasis and primary malignancy of the testis: our experience and review of the literature. Radiol Med. 112(4):588-96, 2007
                                                              18. Shanmugasundaram R et al: Testicular microlithiasis: is there an agreed protocol? Indian J Urol. 23(3):234-9, 2007
                                                              19. Kocaoglu M et al: Testicular microlithiasis in pediatric age group: ultrasonography findings and literature review. Diagn Interv Radiol. 11(1):60-5, 2005
                                                              20. Peterson AC et al: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in an asymptomatic population of men 18 to 35 years old. J Urol. 166(6):2061-4, 2001