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Tetralogy of Fallot
Suhny Abbara, MD, FACR, FSCCT; Justin Stowell, MD; Christopher M. Walker, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
              • Definitions

                • Subvalvular or valvular right ventricular (RV) outflow tract (RVOT) stenosis, subaortic ventricular septal defect (VSD), overriding aorta, and RV hypertrophy
                  • Main pulmonary artery and its branches can also be obstructed at various levels

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Echocardiographic Findings

                          • Angiographic Findings

                            • Imaging Recommendations

                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                PATHOLOGY

                                • General Features

                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Ranganath P et al: Computed tomography in adult congenital heart disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(1):85-111, 2019
                                                2. Stout KK et al: 2018 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. ePub, 2018
                                                3. Lapierre C et al: Tetralogy of Fallot: preoperative assessment with MR and CT imaging. Diagn Interv Imaging. 97(5):531-41, 2016
                                                4. Orwat S et al: Imaging of congenital heart disease in adults: choice of modalities. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 15(1):6-17, 2014
                                                5. Ahmed S et al: Role of multidetector CT in assessment of repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Radiographics. 33(4):1023-36, 2013
                                                6. Ordovas KG et al: Cardiovascular MR imaging after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot: approach based on understanding of surgical procedures. Radiographics. 33(4):1037-52, 2013
                                                7. VillafaƱe J et al: Hot topics in tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Coll Cardiol. 62(23):2155-66, 2013
                                                8. Geva T. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 13:9, 2011
                                                9. Kasar PA et al: Computed tomographic angiography in tetralogy of Fallot. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 19(5):324-32, 2011
                                                10. Babar JL et al: Application of MR imaging in assessment and follow-up of congenital heart disease in adults. Radiographics. 30(4):1145, 2010
                                                11. Frank L et al: Cardiovascular MR imaging of conotruncal anomalies. Radiographics. 30(4):1069-94, 2010
                                                12. Apitz C et al: Tetralogy of Fallot. Lancet. 374(9699):1462-71, 2009
                                                13. Prasad SK et al: Role of magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Circulation. 109(2):207-14, 2004
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Subvalvular or valvular right ventricular (RV) outflow tract (RVOT) stenosis, subaortic ventricular septal defect (VSD), overriding aorta, and RV hypertrophy
                                                                • Main pulmonary artery and its branches can also be obstructed at various levels

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Ranganath P et al: Computed tomography in adult congenital heart disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(1):85-111, 2019
                                                                                              2. Stout KK et al: 2018 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. ePub, 2018
                                                                                              3. Lapierre C et al: Tetralogy of Fallot: preoperative assessment with MR and CT imaging. Diagn Interv Imaging. 97(5):531-41, 2016
                                                                                              4. Orwat S et al: Imaging of congenital heart disease in adults: choice of modalities. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 15(1):6-17, 2014
                                                                                              5. Ahmed S et al: Role of multidetector CT in assessment of repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Radiographics. 33(4):1023-36, 2013
                                                                                              6. Ordovas KG et al: Cardiovascular MR imaging after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot: approach based on understanding of surgical procedures. Radiographics. 33(4):1037-52, 2013
                                                                                              7. VillafaƱe J et al: Hot topics in tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Coll Cardiol. 62(23):2155-66, 2013
                                                                                              8. Geva T. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 13:9, 2011
                                                                                              9. Kasar PA et al: Computed tomographic angiography in tetralogy of Fallot. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 19(5):324-32, 2011
                                                                                              10. Babar JL et al: Application of MR imaging in assessment and follow-up of congenital heart disease in adults. Radiographics. 30(4):1145, 2010
                                                                                              11. Frank L et al: Cardiovascular MR imaging of conotruncal anomalies. Radiographics. 30(4):1069-94, 2010
                                                                                              12. Apitz C et al: Tetralogy of Fallot. Lancet. 374(9699):1462-71, 2009
                                                                                              13. Prasad SK et al: Role of magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Circulation. 109(2):207-14, 2004