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Theca Lutein Cysts
Karen Y. Oh, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Theca lutein (TL) cyst
          • Synonyms

            • Hyperreactio luteinalis
          • Definitions

            • Ovarian enlargement caused by multiple luteinized follicular cysts
            • Secondary to excessive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation

          IMAGING

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                  2. Heilbrun ME et al: Imaging of benign adnexal masses: characteristic presentations on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 52(1):21-39, 2009
                                  3. Stephen GL et al: Theca-lutein cysts complicating recovery after termination of a triploid pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 29(2):158-9, 2009
                                  4. Van Holsbeke C et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis in a spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(3):371-3, 2009
                                  5. Chen EM et al: Pregnancy in chronic renal failure: a novel cause of theca lutein cysts at MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 26(6):1663-5, 2007
                                  6. Villaseca P et al: Bilateral oophorectomy in a pregnant woman: hormonal profile from late gestation to post-partum: case report. Hum Reprod. 20(2):397-401, 2005
                                  7. Chiang G et al: Imaging of adnexal masses in pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 23(6):805-19, 2004
                                  8. Upadhyaya G et al: Bilateral theca lutein cysts: a rare cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Emerg Med Australas. 16(5-6):476-7, 2004
                                  9. Bennett GL et al: Gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics. 22(4):785-801, 2002
                                  10. Bidus MA et al: Markedly elevated beta-hCG levels in a normal singleton gestation with hyperreactio luteinalis. Obstet Gynecol. 99(5 Pt 2):958-61, 2002
                                  11. Takeda T et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 53(4):243-6, 2002
                                  12. Outwater EK et al: Ovarian teratomas: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 21(2):475-90, 2001
                                  13. Frates MC et al: Early prenatal sonographic diagnosis of twin triploid gestation presenting with fetal hydrops and theca-lutein ovarian cysts. J Clin Ultrasound. 28(3):137-41, 2000
                                  14. Lazarus E et al: Sonographic appearance of early complete molar pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med. 18(9):589-94; quiz 595-6, 1999
                                  15. Levine D et al: Obstetric MR imaging. Radiology. 211(3):609-17, 1999
                                  16. Wajda KJ et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis. Benign disorder masquerading as an ovarian neoplasm. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 113(8):921-5, 1989
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Theca lutein (TL) cyst
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Hyperreactio luteinalis
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Ovarian enlargement caused by multiple luteinized follicular cysts
                                            • Secondary to excessive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation

                                          IMAGING

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                                                  2. Heilbrun ME et al: Imaging of benign adnexal masses: characteristic presentations on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 52(1):21-39, 2009
                                                                  3. Stephen GL et al: Theca-lutein cysts complicating recovery after termination of a triploid pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 29(2):158-9, 2009
                                                                  4. Van Holsbeke C et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis in a spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(3):371-3, 2009
                                                                  5. Chen EM et al: Pregnancy in chronic renal failure: a novel cause of theca lutein cysts at MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 26(6):1663-5, 2007
                                                                  6. Villaseca P et al: Bilateral oophorectomy in a pregnant woman: hormonal profile from late gestation to post-partum: case report. Hum Reprod. 20(2):397-401, 2005
                                                                  7. Chiang G et al: Imaging of adnexal masses in pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 23(6):805-19, 2004
                                                                  8. Upadhyaya G et al: Bilateral theca lutein cysts: a rare cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Emerg Med Australas. 16(5-6):476-7, 2004
                                                                  9. Bennett GL et al: Gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics. 22(4):785-801, 2002
                                                                  10. Bidus MA et al: Markedly elevated beta-hCG levels in a normal singleton gestation with hyperreactio luteinalis. Obstet Gynecol. 99(5 Pt 2):958-61, 2002
                                                                  11. Takeda T et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 53(4):243-6, 2002
                                                                  12. Outwater EK et al: Ovarian teratomas: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 21(2):475-90, 2001
                                                                  13. Frates MC et al: Early prenatal sonographic diagnosis of twin triploid gestation presenting with fetal hydrops and theca-lutein ovarian cysts. J Clin Ultrasound. 28(3):137-41, 2000
                                                                  14. Lazarus E et al: Sonographic appearance of early complete molar pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med. 18(9):589-94; quiz 595-6, 1999
                                                                  15. Levine D et al: Obstetric MR imaging. Radiology. 211(3):609-17, 1999
                                                                  16. Wajda KJ et al: Hyperreactio luteinalis. Benign disorder masquerading as an ovarian neoplasm. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 113(8):921-5, 1989