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Thymic Hyperplasia
Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Thymic rebound
              • Definitions

                • Thymic enlargement due to thymic or lymphoid hyperplasia

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Guidoccio F et al: Current role of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy in diagnosis of thymic masses. Tumori. 97(2):191-5, 2011
                                          2. Nasseri F et al: Clinical and radiologic review of the normal and abnormal thymus: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 30(2):413-28, 2010
                                          3. Inaoka T et al: Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging. Radiology. 243(3):869-76, 2007
                                          4. Nishino M et al: The thymus: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 26(2):335-48, 2006
                                          5. Sadohara J et al: Thymic epithelial tumors: comparison of CT and MR imaging findings of low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas, and thymic carcinomas. Eur J Radiol. 60(1):70-9, 2006
                                          6. Ferdinand B et al: Spectrum of thymic uptake at 18F-FDG PET. Radiographics. 24(6):1611-6, 2004
                                          7. Takahashi K et al: Characterization of the normal and hyperplastic thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(5):1265-9, 2003
                                          8. Nicolaou S et al: Thymus in myasthenia gravis: comparison of CT and pathologic findings and clinical outcome after thymectomy. Radiology. 201(2):471-4, 1996
                                          9. Adam EJ et al: Sonography of the thymus in healthy children: frequency of visualization, size, and appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(1):153-5, 1993
                                          10. Foulner D: Case report: transient thymic calcification--association with rebound enlargement. Clin Radiol. 44(6):428-9, 1991
                                          11. Siegel MJ et al: Normal and abnormal thymus in childhood: MR imaging. Radiology. 172(2):367-71, 1989
                                          12. Choyke PL et al: Thymic atrophy and regrowth in response to chemotherapy: CT evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(2):269-72, 1987
                                          13. Goldberg RE et al: Serial CT scans in thymic hyperplasia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 11(3):539-40, 1987
                                          14. Francis IR et al: The thymus: reexamination of age-related changes in size and shape. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 145(2):249-54, 1985
                                          15. Moore AV et al: Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 141(2):241-6, 1983
                                          16. Baron RL et al: Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus. Radiology. 142(1):127-34, 1982
                                          17. Baron RL et al: Computed tomography of the normal thymus. Radiology. 142(1):121-5, 1982
                                          18. Heiberg E et al: Normal thymus: CT characteristics in subjects under age 20. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 138(3):491-4, 1982
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Thymic rebound
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Thymic enlargement due to thymic or lymphoid hyperplasia

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Guidoccio F et al: Current role of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy in diagnosis of thymic masses. Tumori. 97(2):191-5, 2011
                                                                                  2. Nasseri F et al: Clinical and radiologic review of the normal and abnormal thymus: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 30(2):413-28, 2010
                                                                                  3. Inaoka T et al: Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging. Radiology. 243(3):869-76, 2007
                                                                                  4. Nishino M et al: The thymus: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 26(2):335-48, 2006
                                                                                  5. Sadohara J et al: Thymic epithelial tumors: comparison of CT and MR imaging findings of low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas, and thymic carcinomas. Eur J Radiol. 60(1):70-9, 2006
                                                                                  6. Ferdinand B et al: Spectrum of thymic uptake at 18F-FDG PET. Radiographics. 24(6):1611-6, 2004
                                                                                  7. Takahashi K et al: Characterization of the normal and hyperplastic thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(5):1265-9, 2003
                                                                                  8. Nicolaou S et al: Thymus in myasthenia gravis: comparison of CT and pathologic findings and clinical outcome after thymectomy. Radiology. 201(2):471-4, 1996
                                                                                  9. Adam EJ et al: Sonography of the thymus in healthy children: frequency of visualization, size, and appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(1):153-5, 1993
                                                                                  10. Foulner D: Case report: transient thymic calcification--association with rebound enlargement. Clin Radiol. 44(6):428-9, 1991
                                                                                  11. Siegel MJ et al: Normal and abnormal thymus in childhood: MR imaging. Radiology. 172(2):367-71, 1989
                                                                                  12. Choyke PL et al: Thymic atrophy and regrowth in response to chemotherapy: CT evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(2):269-72, 1987
                                                                                  13. Goldberg RE et al: Serial CT scans in thymic hyperplasia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 11(3):539-40, 1987
                                                                                  14. Francis IR et al: The thymus: reexamination of age-related changes in size and shape. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 145(2):249-54, 1985
                                                                                  15. Moore AV et al: Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 141(2):241-6, 1983
                                                                                  16. Baron RL et al: Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus. Radiology. 142(1):127-34, 1982
                                                                                  17. Baron RL et al: Computed tomography of the normal thymus. Radiology. 142(1):121-5, 1982
                                                                                  18. Heiberg E et al: Normal thymus: CT characteristics in subjects under age 20. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 138(3):491-4, 1982