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Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Bhavana Budigi, MD; Anita Thomas, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Clinical Issues

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Thymic neoplasms: Continuum of low-grade to cancerous thymic diseases
          • Thymoma
            • Encapsulated neoplasm: Fibrous saccule
              • Cystic components may be present
            • May have invasive components
            • Can be adherent to adjacent structures
            • Types A, AB: Spindled neoplastic epithelial cells
            • Types B1, B2, B3: Epithelioid neoplastic epithelial cells
          • Thymic carcinoma: Type C thymoma
            • Large, firm, infiltrating mass
            • Cystic component common
        • In some tumors, there is continuum of differentiation from thymoma to carcinoma

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                CLINICAL ISSUES

                • Presentation

                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                    • Treatment

                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                      • Consider

                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                          Selected References

                          1. Drevet G et al: Optimal management of thymic malignancies: current perspectives. Cancer Manag Res. 11:6803-14, 2019
                          2. Li HR et al: Comparison between CT and MRI in the Diagnostic Accuracy of Thymic Masses. J Cancer. 10(14):3208-13, 2019
                          3. Carter BW et al: IASLC/ITMIG staging system and lymph node map for thymic epithelial neoplasms. Radiographics. 37(3):758-76, 2017
                          4. Nakagawa K et al: Can 18F-FDG PET predict the grade of malignancy in thymic epithelial tumors? An evaluation of only resected tumors. Cancer Manag Res. 9:761-8, 2017
                          5. Ried M et al: Evaluation of the new TNM-staging system for thymic malignancies: impact on indication and survival. World J Surg Oncol. 15(1):214, 2017
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Imaging

                            • Clinical Issues

                              TERMINOLOGY

                              • Definitions

                                • Thymic neoplasms: Continuum of low-grade to cancerous thymic diseases
                                  • Thymoma
                                    • Encapsulated neoplasm: Fibrous saccule
                                      • Cystic components may be present
                                    • May have invasive components
                                    • Can be adherent to adjacent structures
                                    • Types A, AB: Spindled neoplastic epithelial cells
                                    • Types B1, B2, B3: Epithelioid neoplastic epithelial cells
                                  • Thymic carcinoma: Type C thymoma
                                    • Large, firm, infiltrating mass
                                    • Cystic component common
                                • In some tumors, there is continuum of differentiation from thymoma to carcinoma

                              IMAGING

                              • General Features

                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                      PATHOLOGY

                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                        • Presentation

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Drevet G et al: Optimal management of thymic malignancies: current perspectives. Cancer Manag Res. 11:6803-14, 2019
                                                  2. Li HR et al: Comparison between CT and MRI in the Diagnostic Accuracy of Thymic Masses. J Cancer. 10(14):3208-13, 2019
                                                  3. Carter BW et al: IASLC/ITMIG staging system and lymph node map for thymic epithelial neoplasms. Radiographics. 37(3):758-76, 2017
                                                  4. Nakagawa K et al: Can 18F-FDG PET predict the grade of malignancy in thymic epithelial tumors? An evaluation of only resected tumors. Cancer Manag Res. 9:761-8, 2017
                                                  5. Ried M et al: Evaluation of the new TNM-staging system for thymic malignancies: impact on indication and survival. World J Surg Oncol. 15(1):214, 2017