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Thymoma
Melissa L. Rosado de Christenson, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG)
            • International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)
          • Definitions

            • Most common malignant thymic epithelial neoplasm
            • Most common nonlymphomatous primary anterior/prevascular mediastinal neoplasm

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Other Modality Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Xiao G et al: MR imaging of thymomas: a combined radiomics nomogram to predict histologic subtypes. Eur Radiol. 31(1):447-457, 2021
                                          2. Markowiak T et al: Classification and staging of thymoma. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7607-7612, 2020
                                          3. Minervini F et al: When to suspect a thymoma: clinical point of view. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7613-7618, 2020
                                          4. Gentili F et al: Update in diagnostic imaging of the thymus and anterior mediastinal masses. Gland Surg. 8(Suppl 3):S188-S207, 2019
                                          5. Carter BW et al: MR Imaging of Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 27(2):65-71, 2018
                                          6. Carter BW et al: IASLC/ITMIG Staging System and Lymph Node Map for Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms. Radiographics. 37(3):758-776, 2017
                                          7. Carter BW et al: State of the Art: MR Imaging of Thymoma. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 23(2):165-177, 2015
                                          8. Nicholson AG et al: The IASLC/ITMIG Thymic Epithelial Tumors Staging Project: proposals for the T Component for the forthcoming (8th) edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumors. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S73-80, 2014
                                          9. Marom EM: Advances in thymoma imaging. J Thorac Imaging. 28(2):69-80; quiz 81-3, 2013
                                          10. Liu CJ et al: High 18F-fluorothymidine uptake for invasive thymoma. Clin Nucl Med. 37(10):991-2, 2012
                                          11. Benveniste MF et al: Role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thymoma. Radiographics. 31(7):1847-61; discussion 1861-3, 2011
                                          12. Marom EM et al: Computed tomography findings predicting invasiveness of thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 6(7):1274-81, 2011
                                          13. Marom EM et al: Standard report terms for chest computed tomography reports of anterior mediastinal masses suspicious for thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 6(7 Suppl 3):S1717-23, 2011
                                          14. Marom EM: Imaging thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 5(10 Suppl 4):S296-303, 2010
                                          15. Rosado-de-Christenson ML et al: Imaging of thymic epithelial neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 22(3):409-31, 2008
                                          16. Maher MM et al: Imaging of thymoma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 17(1):12-9, 2005
                                          17. Jeong YJ et al: Does CT of thymic epithelial tumors enable us to differentiate histologic subtypes and predict prognosis? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):283-9, 2004
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG)
                                                    • International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Most common malignant thymic epithelial neoplasm
                                                    • Most common nonlymphomatous primary anterior/prevascular mediastinal neoplasm

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Other Modality Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Xiao G et al: MR imaging of thymomas: a combined radiomics nomogram to predict histologic subtypes. Eur Radiol. 31(1):447-457, 2021
                                                                                  2. Markowiak T et al: Classification and staging of thymoma. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7607-7612, 2020
                                                                                  3. Minervini F et al: When to suspect a thymoma: clinical point of view. J Thorac Dis. 12(12):7613-7618, 2020
                                                                                  4. Gentili F et al: Update in diagnostic imaging of the thymus and anterior mediastinal masses. Gland Surg. 8(Suppl 3):S188-S207, 2019
                                                                                  5. Carter BW et al: MR Imaging of Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 27(2):65-71, 2018
                                                                                  6. Carter BW et al: IASLC/ITMIG Staging System and Lymph Node Map for Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms. Radiographics. 37(3):758-776, 2017
                                                                                  7. Carter BW et al: State of the Art: MR Imaging of Thymoma. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 23(2):165-177, 2015
                                                                                  8. Nicholson AG et al: The IASLC/ITMIG Thymic Epithelial Tumors Staging Project: proposals for the T Component for the forthcoming (8th) edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumors. J Thorac Oncol. 9(9 Suppl 2):S73-80, 2014
                                                                                  9. Marom EM: Advances in thymoma imaging. J Thorac Imaging. 28(2):69-80; quiz 81-3, 2013
                                                                                  10. Liu CJ et al: High 18F-fluorothymidine uptake for invasive thymoma. Clin Nucl Med. 37(10):991-2, 2012
                                                                                  11. Benveniste MF et al: Role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thymoma. Radiographics. 31(7):1847-61; discussion 1861-3, 2011
                                                                                  12. Marom EM et al: Computed tomography findings predicting invasiveness of thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 6(7):1274-81, 2011
                                                                                  13. Marom EM et al: Standard report terms for chest computed tomography reports of anterior mediastinal masses suspicious for thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 6(7 Suppl 3):S1717-23, 2011
                                                                                  14. Marom EM: Imaging thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 5(10 Suppl 4):S296-303, 2010
                                                                                  15. Rosado-de-Christenson ML et al: Imaging of thymic epithelial neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 22(3):409-31, 2008
                                                                                  16. Maher MM et al: Imaging of thymoma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 17(1):12-9, 2005
                                                                                  17. Jeong YJ et al: Does CT of thymic epithelial tumors enable us to differentiate histologic subtypes and predict prognosis? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):283-9, 2004