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Thyroid Adenoma
Eunice Y. L. Dai, MBBS, FRCR; Yolanda Y. P. Lee, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • True adenoma: Benign neoplasm of thyroid glandular epithelium with fibrous encapsulation
            • Follicular adenoma (FA) and Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA)
          • Adenomatous nodule: Focal adenomatous hyperplasia with incomplete capsule; cold nodule

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Demographics

                            Selected References

                            1. Park JW et al: Korean thyroid imaging reporting and data system features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study. Ultrasonography. 36(4):349-354, 2017
                            2. Nachiappan AC et al: The thyroid: review of imaging features and biopsy techniques with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 34(2):276-93, 2014
                            3. Yoon JH et al: Better understanding in the differentiation of thyroid follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a retrospective study. Int J Endocrinol. 2014:321595, 2014
                            4. Glastonbury CG: Thyroid Adenoma. In Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 2011
                            5. McHenry CR et al: Follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Oncologist. 16(5):585-93, 2011
                            6. Ahn SS et al: Biopsy of thyroid nodules: comparison of three sets of guidelines. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):31-7, 2010
                            7. Iared W et al: Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med. 29(3):419-25, 2010
                            8. Baier ND et al: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: experience in a cohort of 944 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):1175-9, 2009
                            9. Gabalec F et al: Benign fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodule: to repeat or not to repeat? Eur J Endocrinol. 161(6):933-7, 2009
                            10. Hartl DM et al: The updated American Thyroid Association Guidelines for management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: a surgical perspective. Thyroid. 19(11):1149-51, 2009
                            11. Lee EW et al: How diagnostic is ultrasound-guided neck mass biopsy (fine-needle capillary sampling biopsy technique)?: evaluation of 132 nonthyroid neck mass biopsies with pathologic analysis over 7 years at a single institution. J Ultrasound Med. 28(12):1679-84, 2009
                            12. Liu Y: Clinical significance of thyroid uptake on F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Ann Nucl Med. 23(1):17-23, 2009
                            13. Lumachi F et al: FNA cytology and frozen section examination in patients with follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Anticancer Res. 29(12):5255-7, 2009
                            14. Stevens C et al: Pediatric thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 44(11):2184-91, 2009
                            15. Desser TS et al: Ultrasound of thyroid nodules. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, vii, 2008
                            16. Loevner LA et al: Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(3):445-61, vii, 2008
                            17. Yeung MJ et al: Management of the solitary thyroid nodule. Oncologist. 13(2):105-12, 2008
                            18. Baloch Z et al: Role of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the management of thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol. 29(4):203-6, 2003
                            19. Demirel K et al: A comparison of radionuclide thyroid angiography, (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and power Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of solitary cold thyroid nodules. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):642-50, 2003
                            20. Khati N et al: Ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Ultrasound Q. 19(4):162-76, 2003
                            21. Kim EK et al: New sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid nodules of the thyroid. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(3):687-91, 2002
                            22. Hegedus L: Thyroid ultrasound. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 30(2):339-60, viii-ix, 2001
                            23. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                            24. Brander AE et al: Importance of thyroid abnormalities detected at US screening: a 5-year follow-up. Radiology. 215(3):801-6, 2000
                            25. Gotway MB et al: MR imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(1):163-82, ix, 2000
                            26. Hermus AR et al: Treatment of benign nodular thyroid disease. N Engl J Med. 338(20):1438-47, 1998
                            27. Tan GH et al: Thyroid incidentalomas: management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging. Ann Intern Med. 126(3):226-31, 1997
                            28. Brander A et al: Thyroid gland: US screening in a random adult population. Radiology. 181(3):683-7, 1991
                            29. Brander A et al: Thyroid gland: US screening in middle-aged women with no previous thyroid disease. Radiology. 173(2):507-10, 1989
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • True adenoma: Benign neoplasm of thyroid glandular epithelium with fibrous encapsulation
                                      • Follicular adenoma (FA) and Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA)
                                    • Adenomatous nodule: Focal adenomatous hyperplasia with incomplete capsule; cold nodule

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                              PATHOLOGY

                                              • General Features

                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Park JW et al: Korean thyroid imaging reporting and data system features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study. Ultrasonography. 36(4):349-354, 2017
                                                      2. Nachiappan AC et al: The thyroid: review of imaging features and biopsy techniques with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 34(2):276-93, 2014
                                                      3. Yoon JH et al: Better understanding in the differentiation of thyroid follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a retrospective study. Int J Endocrinol. 2014:321595, 2014
                                                      4. Glastonbury CG: Thyroid Adenoma. In Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 2011
                                                      5. McHenry CR et al: Follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Oncologist. 16(5):585-93, 2011
                                                      6. Ahn SS et al: Biopsy of thyroid nodules: comparison of three sets of guidelines. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):31-7, 2010
                                                      7. Iared W et al: Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med. 29(3):419-25, 2010
                                                      8. Baier ND et al: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: experience in a cohort of 944 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):1175-9, 2009
                                                      9. Gabalec F et al: Benign fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodule: to repeat or not to repeat? Eur J Endocrinol. 161(6):933-7, 2009
                                                      10. Hartl DM et al: The updated American Thyroid Association Guidelines for management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: a surgical perspective. Thyroid. 19(11):1149-51, 2009
                                                      11. Lee EW et al: How diagnostic is ultrasound-guided neck mass biopsy (fine-needle capillary sampling biopsy technique)?: evaluation of 132 nonthyroid neck mass biopsies with pathologic analysis over 7 years at a single institution. J Ultrasound Med. 28(12):1679-84, 2009
                                                      12. Liu Y: Clinical significance of thyroid uptake on F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Ann Nucl Med. 23(1):17-23, 2009
                                                      13. Lumachi F et al: FNA cytology and frozen section examination in patients with follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Anticancer Res. 29(12):5255-7, 2009
                                                      14. Stevens C et al: Pediatric thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 44(11):2184-91, 2009
                                                      15. Desser TS et al: Ultrasound of thyroid nodules. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, vii, 2008
                                                      16. Loevner LA et al: Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(3):445-61, vii, 2008
                                                      17. Yeung MJ et al: Management of the solitary thyroid nodule. Oncologist. 13(2):105-12, 2008
                                                      18. Baloch Z et al: Role of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the management of thyroid nodules. Diagn Cytopathol. 29(4):203-6, 2003
                                                      19. Demirel K et al: A comparison of radionuclide thyroid angiography, (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and power Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of solitary cold thyroid nodules. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):642-50, 2003
                                                      20. Khati N et al: Ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Ultrasound Q. 19(4):162-76, 2003
                                                      21. Kim EK et al: New sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid nodules of the thyroid. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(3):687-91, 2002
                                                      22. Hegedus L: Thyroid ultrasound. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 30(2):339-60, viii-ix, 2001
                                                      23. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                                                      24. Brander AE et al: Importance of thyroid abnormalities detected at US screening: a 5-year follow-up. Radiology. 215(3):801-6, 2000
                                                      25. Gotway MB et al: MR imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(1):163-82, ix, 2000
                                                      26. Hermus AR et al: Treatment of benign nodular thyroid disease. N Engl J Med. 338(20):1438-47, 1998
                                                      27. Tan GH et al: Thyroid incidentalomas: management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging. Ann Intern Med. 126(3):226-31, 1997
                                                      28. Brander A et al: Thyroid gland: US screening in a random adult population. Radiology. 181(3):683-7, 1991
                                                      29. Brander A et al: Thyroid gland: US screening in middle-aged women with no previous thyroid disease. Radiology. 173(2):507-10, 1989