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Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy
H. Christian Davidson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid eye disease
            • Definitions

              • Autoimmune orbital inflammatory condition associated with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Perumal B et al: Treatment of Severe Thyroid Eye Disease: A Survey of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS). Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 31(2):127-31, 2015
                                                2. Shan SJ et al: The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 34(2):177-85, 2014
                                                3. Borumandi F et al: Classification of orbital morphology for decompression surgery in Graves' orbitopathy: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional orbital parameters. Br J Ophthalmol. 97(5):659-62, 2013
                                                4. Dolman PJ et al: Orbital radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 23(5):427-32, 2012
                                                5. Bahn RS: Graves' ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 362(8):726-38, 2010
                                                6. Hu WD et al: Radiographic analysis of extraocular muscle volumetric changes in thyroid-related orbitopathy following orbital decompression. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 26(1):1-6, 2010
                                                7. Bartalena L et al: Clinical practice. Graves' ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 360(10):994-1001, 2009
                                                8. Dodds NI et al: Use of high-resolution MRI of the optic nerve in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Br J Radiol. 82(979):541-4, 2009
                                                9. Kirsch E et al: Imaging in Graves' orbitopathy. Orbit. 28(4):219-25, 2009
                                                10. Bartalena L et al: Consensus statement of the European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of GO. Eur J Endocrinol. 158(3):273-85, 2008
                                                11. Bijlsma WR et al: Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline. Orbit. 25(2):83-91, 2006
                                                12. Dolman PJ et al: VISA Classification for Graves orbitopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 22(5):319-24, 2006
                                                13. Cakirer S et al: Evaluation of extraocular muscles in the edematous phase of Graves ophthalmopathy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(1):80-6, 2004
                                                14. Bahn RS: Thyrotropin receptor expression in orbital adipose/connective tissues from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 12(3):193-5, 2002
                                                15. Yokoyama N et al: Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of disease activity in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 12(3):223-7, 2002
                                                16. Mayer E et al: Serial STIR magnetic resonance imaging correlates with clinical score of activity in thyroid disease. Eye. 15(Pt 3):313-8, 2001
                                                17. Alp MN et al: Colour Doppler imaging of the orbital vasculature in Graves' disease with computed tomographic correlation. Br J Ophthalmol. 84(9):1027-30, 2000
                                                18. Ozgen A et al: Normative measurements of orbital structures using CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(4):1093-6, 1998
                                                19. Weber AL et al: Graves' disease of the orbit. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 6(1):61-72, 1996
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid eye disease
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Autoimmune orbital inflammatory condition associated with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Perumal B et al: Treatment of Severe Thyroid Eye Disease: A Survey of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS). Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 31(2):127-31, 2015
                                                                                              2. Shan SJ et al: The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 34(2):177-85, 2014
                                                                                              3. Borumandi F et al: Classification of orbital morphology for decompression surgery in Graves' orbitopathy: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional orbital parameters. Br J Ophthalmol. 97(5):659-62, 2013
                                                                                              4. Dolman PJ et al: Orbital radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 23(5):427-32, 2012
                                                                                              5. Bahn RS: Graves' ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 362(8):726-38, 2010
                                                                                              6. Hu WD et al: Radiographic analysis of extraocular muscle volumetric changes in thyroid-related orbitopathy following orbital decompression. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 26(1):1-6, 2010
                                                                                              7. Bartalena L et al: Clinical practice. Graves' ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 360(10):994-1001, 2009
                                                                                              8. Dodds NI et al: Use of high-resolution MRI of the optic nerve in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Br J Radiol. 82(979):541-4, 2009
                                                                                              9. Kirsch E et al: Imaging in Graves' orbitopathy. Orbit. 28(4):219-25, 2009
                                                                                              10. Bartalena L et al: Consensus statement of the European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of GO. Eur J Endocrinol. 158(3):273-85, 2008
                                                                                              11. Bijlsma WR et al: Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline. Orbit. 25(2):83-91, 2006
                                                                                              12. Dolman PJ et al: VISA Classification for Graves orbitopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 22(5):319-24, 2006
                                                                                              13. Cakirer S et al: Evaluation of extraocular muscles in the edematous phase of Graves ophthalmopathy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(1):80-6, 2004
                                                                                              14. Bahn RS: Thyrotropin receptor expression in orbital adipose/connective tissues from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 12(3):193-5, 2002
                                                                                              15. Yokoyama N et al: Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of disease activity in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 12(3):223-7, 2002
                                                                                              16. Mayer E et al: Serial STIR magnetic resonance imaging correlates with clinical score of activity in thyroid disease. Eye. 15(Pt 3):313-8, 2001
                                                                                              17. Alp MN et al: Colour Doppler imaging of the orbital vasculature in Graves' disease with computed tomographic correlation. Br J Ophthalmol. 84(9):1027-30, 2000
                                                                                              18. Ozgen A et al: Normative measurements of orbital structures using CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(4):1093-6, 1998
                                                                                              19. Weber AL et al: Graves' disease of the orbit. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 6(1):61-72, 1996