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Thyroid Disorders
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE)
              • Pituitary hyperplasia (PH)
            • Synonyms

              • HE: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT)
            • Definitions

              • Thyroid hormone deficiency affecting multiorgan systems

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Other Modality Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Nandi-Munshi D et al: Thyroid-related neurological disorders and complications in children. Pediatr Neurol. 52(4):373-82, 2015
                                          2. Johnston PC et al: Thyrotroph hyperplasia. Postgrad Med J. 90(1059):56-7, 2014
                                          3. Kirshner HS: Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a brief review. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 14(9):476, 2014
                                          4. Mills NJ et al: Reactive pituitary hyperplasia associated with paediatric primary hypothyroidism. J Paediatr Child Health. 49(5):421-2, 2013
                                          5. Zhang WH et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 34(5):468-73, 2012
                                          6. Eom KS et al: Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Pediatr Radiol. 39(2):164-7, 2009
                                          7. Alves C et al: Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(12):1505-8, 2008
                                          8. Khawaja NM et al: Pituitary enlargement in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 12(1):29-34, 2006
                                          9. Joshi AS et al: Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Pituitary. 8(2):99-103, 2005
                                          10. Oatridge A et al: Changes in brain size with treatment in patients with hyper- or hypothyroidism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1539-44, 2002
                                          11. Bongers-Schokking JJ: Pre- and postnatal brain development in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 14 Suppl 6:1463-8, 2001
                                          12. Constant EL et al: Cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in hypothyroidism: a positron emission tomography study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86(8):3864-70, 2001
                                          13. Selim M et al: Ataxia associated with Hashimoto's disease: progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration with autoimmune thyroiditis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 71(1):81-7, 2001
                                          14. Papakonstantinou O et al: MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism. Eur Radiol. 10(3):516-8, 2000
                                          15. Kinuya S et al: Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion observed with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in reversible dementia caused by hypothyroidism. Clin Nucl Med. 24(9):666-8, 1999
                                          16. Shimono T et al: Rapid progression of pituitary hyperplasia in humans with primary hypothyroidism: demonstration with MR imaging. Radiology. 213(2):383-8, 1999
                                          17. Desai MP et al: Pituitary enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging in congenital hypothyroidism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 150(6):623-8, 1996
                                          18. Wolansky LJ et al: MRI of pituitary hyperplasia in hypothyroidism. Neuroradiology. 38(1):50-2, 1996
                                          19. Gupta RK et al: Brain metabolite changes on in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr. 126(3):389-92, 1995
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE)
                                                      • Pituitary hyperplasia (PH)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • HE: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Thyroid hormone deficiency affecting multiorgan systems

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Other Modality Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Nandi-Munshi D et al: Thyroid-related neurological disorders and complications in children. Pediatr Neurol. 52(4):373-82, 2015
                                                                                  2. Johnston PC et al: Thyrotroph hyperplasia. Postgrad Med J. 90(1059):56-7, 2014
                                                                                  3. Kirshner HS: Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a brief review. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 14(9):476, 2014
                                                                                  4. Mills NJ et al: Reactive pituitary hyperplasia associated with paediatric primary hypothyroidism. J Paediatr Child Health. 49(5):421-2, 2013
                                                                                  5. Zhang WH et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 34(5):468-73, 2012
                                                                                  6. Eom KS et al: Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Pediatr Radiol. 39(2):164-7, 2009
                                                                                  7. Alves C et al: Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(12):1505-8, 2008
                                                                                  8. Khawaja NM et al: Pituitary enlargement in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 12(1):29-34, 2006
                                                                                  9. Joshi AS et al: Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Pituitary. 8(2):99-103, 2005
                                                                                  10. Oatridge A et al: Changes in brain size with treatment in patients with hyper- or hypothyroidism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1539-44, 2002
                                                                                  11. Bongers-Schokking JJ: Pre- and postnatal brain development in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 14 Suppl 6:1463-8, 2001
                                                                                  12. Constant EL et al: Cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in hypothyroidism: a positron emission tomography study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86(8):3864-70, 2001
                                                                                  13. Selim M et al: Ataxia associated with Hashimoto's disease: progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration with autoimmune thyroiditis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 71(1):81-7, 2001
                                                                                  14. Papakonstantinou O et al: MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism. Eur Radiol. 10(3):516-8, 2000
                                                                                  15. Kinuya S et al: Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion observed with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in reversible dementia caused by hypothyroidism. Clin Nucl Med. 24(9):666-8, 1999
                                                                                  16. Shimono T et al: Rapid progression of pituitary hyperplasia in humans with primary hypothyroidism: demonstration with MR imaging. Radiology. 213(2):383-8, 1999
                                                                                  17. Desai MP et al: Pituitary enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging in congenital hypothyroidism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 150(6):623-8, 1996
                                                                                  18. Wolansky LJ et al: MRI of pituitary hyperplasia in hypothyroidism. Neuroradiology. 38(1):50-2, 1996
                                                                                  19. Gupta RK et al: Brain metabolite changes on in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pediatr. 126(3):389-92, 1995