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Thyroid Metastases
Eunice Y. L. Dai, MBBS, FRCR; Yolanda Y. P. Lee, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Metastasis to thyroid gland from nonthyroid primary

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • Microscopic Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Debnam JM et al: Sonographic evaluation of intrathyroid metastases. J Ultrasound Med. 36(1):69-76, 2017
                            2. Nixon IJ et al: Metastasis to the thyroid gland: a critical review. Ann Surg Oncol. 24(6):1533-1539, 2017
                            3. Chung AY et al: Metastases to the thyroid: a review of the literature from the last decade. Thyroid. 22(3):258-68, 2012
                            4. Manohar K et al: Renal cell carcinoma presenting as isolated thyroid metastasis 13 years after radical nephrectomy, detected on F-18 FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 35(10):818-9, 2010
                            5. Basu S et al: Metastatic malignant melanoma to the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET imaging. Clin Nucl Med. 32(5):388-9, 2007
                            6. Iguchi T et al: F-18 FDG PET demonstration of a thyroid metastasis in a patient with colon cancer. Clin Nucl Med. 32(5):361-2, 2007
                            7. Kim AY et al: Isolated thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med. 26(12):1799-802, 2007
                            8. Kim TY et al: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope. 115(6):1074-8, 2005
                            9. Kim TY et al: Metastasis to the thyroid diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 62(2):236-41, 2005
                            10. Pickhardt PJ et al: Sonography of delayed thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma with jugular vein extension. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(1):272-4, 2003
                            11. Chung SY et al: Sonographic findings of metastatic disease to the thyroid. Yonsei Med J. 42(4):411-7, 2001
                            12. Ahuja AT et al: Role of ultrasonography in thyroid metastases. Clin Radiol. 49(9):627-9, 1994
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Metastasis to thyroid gland from nonthyroid primary

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • Microscopic Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Debnam JM et al: Sonographic evaluation of intrathyroid metastases. J Ultrasound Med. 36(1):69-76, 2017
                                                      2. Nixon IJ et al: Metastasis to the thyroid gland: a critical review. Ann Surg Oncol. 24(6):1533-1539, 2017
                                                      3. Chung AY et al: Metastases to the thyroid: a review of the literature from the last decade. Thyroid. 22(3):258-68, 2012
                                                      4. Manohar K et al: Renal cell carcinoma presenting as isolated thyroid metastasis 13 years after radical nephrectomy, detected on F-18 FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 35(10):818-9, 2010
                                                      5. Basu S et al: Metastatic malignant melanoma to the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET imaging. Clin Nucl Med. 32(5):388-9, 2007
                                                      6. Iguchi T et al: F-18 FDG PET demonstration of a thyroid metastasis in a patient with colon cancer. Clin Nucl Med. 32(5):361-2, 2007
                                                      7. Kim AY et al: Isolated thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med. 26(12):1799-802, 2007
                                                      8. Kim TY et al: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope. 115(6):1074-8, 2005
                                                      9. Kim TY et al: Metastasis to the thyroid diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 62(2):236-41, 2005
                                                      10. Pickhardt PJ et al: Sonography of delayed thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma with jugular vein extension. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(1):272-4, 2003
                                                      11. Chung SY et al: Sonographic findings of metastatic disease to the thyroid. Yonsei Med J. 42(4):411-7, 2001
                                                      12. Ahuja AT et al: Role of ultrasonography in thyroid metastases. Clin Radiol. 49(9):627-9, 1994