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Tibiofemoral Dislocation
Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR; Donna G. Blankenbaker, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
            • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
            • Medial collateral ligament (MCL)
            • Fibular collateral ligament (FCL)
          • Synonyms

            • Knee dislocation
          • Definitions

            • Disruption of tibiofemoral joint

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Krych AJ et al: Meniscal tears and articular cartilage damage in the dislocated knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 23(10):3019-25, 2015
                                      2. Sheehan SE et al: A biomechanical approach to interpreting magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):621-48, 2014
                                      3. Walker RE et al: Radiologic review of knee dislocation: from diagnosis to repair. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(3):483-95, 2013
                                      4. Howells NR et al: Acute knee dislocation: an evidence based approach to the management of the multiligament injured knee. Injury. 42(11):1198-204, 2011
                                      5. Rajeswaran G et al: Radiology and management of multiligament injuries of the knee. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 15(1):42-58, 2011
                                      6. Harb A et al: The MR dimple sign in irreducible posterolateral knee dislocations. Skeletal Radiol. 38(11):1111-4, 2009
                                      7. Levy BA et al: Controversies in the treatment of knee dislocations and multiligament reconstruction. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 17(4):197-206, 2009
                                      8. Levy BA et al: Decision making in the multiligament-injured knee: an evidence-based systematic review. Arthroscopy. 25(4):430-8, 2009
                                      9. Nicandri GT et al: Practical management of knee dislocations: a selective angiography protocol to detect limb-threatening vascular injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 19(2):125-9, 2009
                                      10. Robertson A et al: Dislocation of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(6):706-11, 2006
                                      11. Helgeson MD et al: Initial evaluation of the acute and chronic multiple ligament injured knee. J Knee Surg. 18(3):213-9, 2005
                                      12. Giannoulias CS et al: Knee dislocations: management of the multiligament-injured knee. Am J Orthop. 33(11):553-9, 2004
                                      13. Klineberg EO et al: The role of arteriography in assessing popliteal artery injury in knee dislocations. J Trauma. 56(4):786-90, 2004
                                      14. Stannard JP et al: Vascular injuries in knee dislocations: the role of physical examination in determining the need for arteriography. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(5):910-5, 2004
                                      15. Barnes CJ et al: Does the pulse examination in patients with traumatic knee dislocation predict a surgical arterial injury? A meta-analysis. J Trauma. 53(6):1109-14, 2002
                                      16. Perron AD et al: Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: vascular injury associated with knee dislocation. Am J Emerg Med. 19(7):583-8, 2001
                                      17. Brautigan B et al: The epidemiology of knee dislocations. Clin Sports Med. 19(3):387-97, 2000
                                      18. Hayes CW et al: Mechanism-based pattern approach to classification of complex injuries of the knee depicted at MR imaging. Radiographics. 20 Spec No:S121-34, 2000
                                      19. Hegyes MS et al: Knee dislocation. Complications of nonoperative and operative management. Clin Sports Med. 19(3):519-43, 2000
                                      20. Twaddle BC et al: MRI in acute knee dislocation. A prospective study of clinical, MRI, and surgical findings. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 78(4):573-9, 1996
                                      21. Yu JS et al: Complete dislocation of the knee: spectrum of associated soft-tissue injuries depicted by MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(1):135-9, 1995
                                      22. Kremchek TE et al: Traumatic dislocation of the knee. Orthop Rev. 18(10):1051-7, 1989
                                      23. Walls RM et al: Traumatic dislocation of the knee. J Emerg Med. 1(6):527-31, 1984
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
                                                • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
                                                • Medial collateral ligament (MCL)
                                                • Fibular collateral ligament (FCL)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Knee dislocation
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Disruption of tibiofemoral joint

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Krych AJ et al: Meniscal tears and articular cartilage damage in the dislocated knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 23(10):3019-25, 2015
                                                                          2. Sheehan SE et al: A biomechanical approach to interpreting magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):621-48, 2014
                                                                          3. Walker RE et al: Radiologic review of knee dislocation: from diagnosis to repair. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(3):483-95, 2013
                                                                          4. Howells NR et al: Acute knee dislocation: an evidence based approach to the management of the multiligament injured knee. Injury. 42(11):1198-204, 2011
                                                                          5. Rajeswaran G et al: Radiology and management of multiligament injuries of the knee. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 15(1):42-58, 2011
                                                                          6. Harb A et al: The MR dimple sign in irreducible posterolateral knee dislocations. Skeletal Radiol. 38(11):1111-4, 2009
                                                                          7. Levy BA et al: Controversies in the treatment of knee dislocations and multiligament reconstruction. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 17(4):197-206, 2009
                                                                          8. Levy BA et al: Decision making in the multiligament-injured knee: an evidence-based systematic review. Arthroscopy. 25(4):430-8, 2009
                                                                          9. Nicandri GT et al: Practical management of knee dislocations: a selective angiography protocol to detect limb-threatening vascular injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 19(2):125-9, 2009
                                                                          10. Robertson A et al: Dislocation of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(6):706-11, 2006
                                                                          11. Helgeson MD et al: Initial evaluation of the acute and chronic multiple ligament injured knee. J Knee Surg. 18(3):213-9, 2005
                                                                          12. Giannoulias CS et al: Knee dislocations: management of the multiligament-injured knee. Am J Orthop. 33(11):553-9, 2004
                                                                          13. Klineberg EO et al: The role of arteriography in assessing popliteal artery injury in knee dislocations. J Trauma. 56(4):786-90, 2004
                                                                          14. Stannard JP et al: Vascular injuries in knee dislocations: the role of physical examination in determining the need for arteriography. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A(5):910-5, 2004
                                                                          15. Barnes CJ et al: Does the pulse examination in patients with traumatic knee dislocation predict a surgical arterial injury? A meta-analysis. J Trauma. 53(6):1109-14, 2002
                                                                          16. Perron AD et al: Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: vascular injury associated with knee dislocation. Am J Emerg Med. 19(7):583-8, 2001
                                                                          17. Brautigan B et al: The epidemiology of knee dislocations. Clin Sports Med. 19(3):387-97, 2000
                                                                          18. Hayes CW et al: Mechanism-based pattern approach to classification of complex injuries of the knee depicted at MR imaging. Radiographics. 20 Spec No:S121-34, 2000
                                                                          19. Hegyes MS et al: Knee dislocation. Complications of nonoperative and operative management. Clin Sports Med. 19(3):519-43, 2000
                                                                          20. Twaddle BC et al: MRI in acute knee dislocation. A prospective study of clinical, MRI, and surgical findings. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 78(4):573-9, 1996
                                                                          21. Yu JS et al: Complete dislocation of the knee: spectrum of associated soft-tissue injuries depicted by MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(1):135-9, 1995
                                                                          22. Kremchek TE et al: Traumatic dislocation of the knee. Orthop Rev. 18(10):1051-7, 1989
                                                                          23. Walls RM et al: Traumatic dislocation of the knee. J Emerg Med. 1(6):527-31, 1984