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TORCH Infections, Overview
Gary L. Hedlund, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • TORCH(S), (S)TORCH, congenital infections, intrauterine infection
              • Definitions

                • Congenital infections caused by transplacental transmission of pathogens
                  • Toxoplasmosis (toxo): Toxoplasma gondii
                  • Rubella: Rubella virus
                  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Most common TORCH infection
                  • Herpes: Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2)
                  • Other: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), syphilis

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Bajaj M et al: Clinical and neuroimaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. J Pediatr. 165(2):404-407.e1, 2014
                                            2. Bale JF Jr: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Handb Clin Neurol. 123:319-26, 2014
                                            3. Wilson MR et al: Diseases of the central nervous system caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and other arenaviruses. Handb Clin Neurol. 123:671-81, 2014
                                            4. Anderson JL et al: Congenital Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus: When to Consider the Diagnosis. J Child Neurol. 29(6):837-842, 2013
                                            5. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 2: TORCH, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e52-63, 2012
                                            6. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                            7. Kulkarni AM et al: Fetal intracranial calcification: pseudo-TORCH phenotype and discussion of related phenotypes. Am J Med Genet A. 152A(4):930-7, 2010
                                            8. Briggs TA et al: Band-like intracranial calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria: a distinct "pseudo-TORCH" phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 146A(24):3173-80, 2008
                                            9. Sanchis A et al: Genetic syndromes mimic congenital infections. J Pediatr. 146(5):701-5, 2005
                                            10. de Vries LS et al: The spectrum of cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Neuropediatrics. 35(2):113-9, 2004
                                            11. Jones J et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Physician. 67(10):2131-8, 2003
                                            12. Bale JF Jr: Congenital infections. Neurol Clin. 20(4):1039-60, vii, 2002
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • TORCH(S), (S)TORCH, congenital infections, intrauterine infection
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Congenital infections caused by transplacental transmission of pathogens
                                                            • Toxoplasmosis (toxo): Toxoplasma gondii
                                                            • Rubella: Rubella virus
                                                            • Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Most common TORCH infection
                                                            • Herpes: Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2)
                                                            • Other: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), syphilis

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Bajaj M et al: Clinical and neuroimaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. J Pediatr. 165(2):404-407.e1, 2014
                                                                                      2. Bale JF Jr: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Handb Clin Neurol. 123:319-26, 2014
                                                                                      3. Wilson MR et al: Diseases of the central nervous system caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and other arenaviruses. Handb Clin Neurol. 123:671-81, 2014
                                                                                      4. Anderson JL et al: Congenital Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus: When to Consider the Diagnosis. J Child Neurol. 29(6):837-842, 2013
                                                                                      5. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 2: TORCH, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e52-63, 2012
                                                                                      6. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                                                                      7. Kulkarni AM et al: Fetal intracranial calcification: pseudo-TORCH phenotype and discussion of related phenotypes. Am J Med Genet A. 152A(4):930-7, 2010
                                                                                      8. Briggs TA et al: Band-like intracranial calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria: a distinct "pseudo-TORCH" phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 146A(24):3173-80, 2008
                                                                                      9. Sanchis A et al: Genetic syndromes mimic congenital infections. J Pediatr. 146(5):701-5, 2005
                                                                                      10. de Vries LS et al: The spectrum of cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Neuropediatrics. 35(2):113-9, 2004
                                                                                      11. Jones J et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Physician. 67(10):2131-8, 2003
                                                                                      12. Bale JF Jr: Congenital infections. Neurol Clin. 20(4):1039-60, vii, 2002