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Toxoplasmosis
Janice L. B. Byrne, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Toxoplasmosis is T in TORCH infections
            • Definitions

              • Transplacental infection with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii

            IMAGING

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            Selected References

                            1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Practice bulletin no. 151: Cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster, and toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 125(6):1510-25, 2015
                            2. Avci ME et al: Role of spiramycin in prevention of fetal toxoplasmosis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2015
                            3. Dhakal R et al: Significance of a positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M test result in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 53(11):3601-5, 2015
                            4. Mouri O et al: The impact of lowering the cut-off value on the sensitivity of the Platelia Elisa IgG (Bio-Rad) test for toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Parasite. 22:22, 2015
                            5. Tanimura K et al: The IgG avidity value for the prediction of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the amniotic fluid. J Infect Chemother. 21(9):668-71, 2015
                            6. Bamba S et al: Seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Pak J Biol Sci. 17(9):1074-8, 2014
                            7. Akinbami AA et al: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies amongst pregnant women at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 17(2):164-7, 2010
                            8. Al-Hamod D et al: Delayed onset of severe neonatal toxoplasmosis. J Perinatol. 30(3):231-2, 2010
                            9. Azevedo KM et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted by human immunodeficiency-virus infected women. Braz J Infect Dis. 14(2):186-9, 2010
                            10. Berrébi A et al: Long-term outcome of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203(6):552, 2010
                            11. Caby F et al: Fetal death as a result of placental immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Infect. 61(2):185-8, 2010
                            12. Elmore SA et al: Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention. Trends Parasitol. 26(4):190-6, 2010
                            13. Filisetti D et al: Placental testing for Toxoplasma gondii is not useful to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 29(7):665-7, 2010
                            14. Kotresha D et al: Recombinant proteins in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. APMIS. 118(8):529-42, 2010
                            15. Köhler S et al: Neutralization assay to resolve discrepancies between positive results in new highly sensitive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG assays and negative results in reference tests. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 29(3):359-63, 2010
                            16. Ortiz-Alegría LB et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis. Genes Immun. 11(5):363-73, 2010
                            17. Veleminsky M Jr et al: Importance of screening serological examination of umbilical blood and the blood of the mother for timely diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 31(3):310-2, 2010
                            18. Villena I et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis in France in 2007: first results from a national surveillance system. Euro Surveill. 15(25), 2010
                            19. Wallon M et al: Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol. 115(4):727-33, 2010
                            20. Wang T et al: Toxoplasma gondii: The effects of infection at different stages of pregnancy on the offspring of mice. Exp Parasitol. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Pathology

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Abbreviations

                                        • Toxoplasmosis is T in TORCH infections
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Transplacental infection with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii

                                      IMAGING

                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Practice bulletin no. 151: Cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster, and toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 125(6):1510-25, 2015
                                                      2. Avci ME et al: Role of spiramycin in prevention of fetal toxoplasmosis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2015
                                                      3. Dhakal R et al: Significance of a positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M test result in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 53(11):3601-5, 2015
                                                      4. Mouri O et al: The impact of lowering the cut-off value on the sensitivity of the Platelia Elisa IgG (Bio-Rad) test for toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Parasite. 22:22, 2015
                                                      5. Tanimura K et al: The IgG avidity value for the prediction of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the amniotic fluid. J Infect Chemother. 21(9):668-71, 2015
                                                      6. Bamba S et al: Seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Pak J Biol Sci. 17(9):1074-8, 2014
                                                      7. Akinbami AA et al: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies amongst pregnant women at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 17(2):164-7, 2010
                                                      8. Al-Hamod D et al: Delayed onset of severe neonatal toxoplasmosis. J Perinatol. 30(3):231-2, 2010
                                                      9. Azevedo KM et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted by human immunodeficiency-virus infected women. Braz J Infect Dis. 14(2):186-9, 2010
                                                      10. Berrébi A et al: Long-term outcome of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203(6):552, 2010
                                                      11. Caby F et al: Fetal death as a result of placental immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Infect. 61(2):185-8, 2010
                                                      12. Elmore SA et al: Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention. Trends Parasitol. 26(4):190-6, 2010
                                                      13. Filisetti D et al: Placental testing for Toxoplasma gondii is not useful to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 29(7):665-7, 2010
                                                      14. Kotresha D et al: Recombinant proteins in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. APMIS. 118(8):529-42, 2010
                                                      15. Köhler S et al: Neutralization assay to resolve discrepancies between positive results in new highly sensitive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG assays and negative results in reference tests. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 29(3):359-63, 2010
                                                      16. Ortiz-Alegría LB et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis. Genes Immun. 11(5):363-73, 2010
                                                      17. Veleminsky M Jr et al: Importance of screening serological examination of umbilical blood and the blood of the mother for timely diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 31(3):310-2, 2010
                                                      18. Villena I et al: Congenital toxoplasmosis in France in 2007: first results from a national surveillance system. Euro Surveill. 15(25), 2010
                                                      19. Wallon M et al: Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol. 115(4):727-33, 2010
                                                      20. Wang T et al: Toxoplasma gondii: The effects of infection at different stages of pregnancy on the offspring of mice. Exp Parasitol. Epub ahead of print, 2010