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Tracheobronchomalacia
Jonathan Hero Chung, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia
            • Definitions

              • Increased compliance & excessive collapsibility of trachea or bronchi

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Ridge CA et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: Current Concepts and Controversies. J Thorac Imaging. 26(4):278-289, 2011
                                      2. Gaissert HA et al: The compromised airway: tumors, strictures, and tracheomalacia. Surg Clin North Am. 90(5):1065-89, 2010
                                      3. Javidan-Nejad C: MDCT of trachea and main bronchi. Radiol Clin North Am. 48(1):157-76, 2010
                                      4. Lee KS et al: Update on multidetector computed tomography imaging of the airways. J Thorac Imaging. 25(2):112-24, 2010
                                      5. Sverzellati N et al: Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening. Eur Radiol. 19(7):1669-78, 2009
                                      6. Boiselle PM et al: Tracheal morphology in patients with tracheomalacia: prevalence of inspiratory lunate and expiratory "frown" shapes. J Thorac Imaging. 21(3):190-6, 2006
                                      7. Baroni RH et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: comparison between end-expiratory and dynamic expiratory CT for evaluation of central airway collapse. Radiology. 235(2):635-41, 2005
                                      8. Carden KA et al: Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review. Chest. 127(3):984-1005, 2005
                                      9. Boiselle PM et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: evolving role of dynamic multislice helical CT. Radiol Clin North Am. 41(3):627-36, 2003
                                      10. Hasegawa I et al: Tracheomalacia incidentally detected on CT pulmonary angiography of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(6):1505-9, 2003
                                      11. Zhang J et al: 2003 AUR Memorial Award. Dynamic expiratory volumetric CT imaging of the central airways: comparison of standard-dose and low-dose techniques. Acad Radiol. 10(7):719-24, 2003
                                      12. Gilkeson RC et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: dynamic airway evaluation with multidetector CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(1):205-10, 2001
                                      13. Marom EM et al: Focal abnormalities of the trachea and main bronchi. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):707-11, 2001
                                      14. Suto Y et al: Evaluation of tracheal collapsibility in patients with tracheomalacia using dynamic MR imaging during coughing. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(2):393-4, 1998
                                      15. Stern EJ et al: Normal trachea during forced expiration: dynamic CT measurements. Radiology. 187(1):27-31, 1993
                                      16. Breatnach E et al: Dimensions of the normal human trachea. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 142(5):903-6, 1984
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Increased compliance & excessive collapsibility of trachea or bronchi

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Ridge CA et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: Current Concepts and Controversies. J Thorac Imaging. 26(4):278-289, 2011
                                                                          2. Gaissert HA et al: The compromised airway: tumors, strictures, and tracheomalacia. Surg Clin North Am. 90(5):1065-89, 2010
                                                                          3. Javidan-Nejad C: MDCT of trachea and main bronchi. Radiol Clin North Am. 48(1):157-76, 2010
                                                                          4. Lee KS et al: Update on multidetector computed tomography imaging of the airways. J Thorac Imaging. 25(2):112-24, 2010
                                                                          5. Sverzellati N et al: Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening. Eur Radiol. 19(7):1669-78, 2009
                                                                          6. Boiselle PM et al: Tracheal morphology in patients with tracheomalacia: prevalence of inspiratory lunate and expiratory "frown" shapes. J Thorac Imaging. 21(3):190-6, 2006
                                                                          7. Baroni RH et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: comparison between end-expiratory and dynamic expiratory CT for evaluation of central airway collapse. Radiology. 235(2):635-41, 2005
                                                                          8. Carden KA et al: Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review. Chest. 127(3):984-1005, 2005
                                                                          9. Boiselle PM et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: evolving role of dynamic multislice helical CT. Radiol Clin North Am. 41(3):627-36, 2003
                                                                          10. Hasegawa I et al: Tracheomalacia incidentally detected on CT pulmonary angiography of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(6):1505-9, 2003
                                                                          11. Zhang J et al: 2003 AUR Memorial Award. Dynamic expiratory volumetric CT imaging of the central airways: comparison of standard-dose and low-dose techniques. Acad Radiol. 10(7):719-24, 2003
                                                                          12. Gilkeson RC et al: Tracheobronchomalacia: dynamic airway evaluation with multidetector CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(1):205-10, 2001
                                                                          13. Marom EM et al: Focal abnormalities of the trachea and main bronchi. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):707-11, 2001
                                                                          14. Suto Y et al: Evaluation of tracheal collapsibility in patients with tracheomalacia using dynamic MR imaging during coughing. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(2):393-4, 1998
                                                                          15. Stern EJ et al: Normal trachea during forced expiration: dynamic CT measurements. Radiology. 187(1):27-31, 1993
                                                                          16. Breatnach E et al: Dimensions of the normal human trachea. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 142(5):903-6, 1984