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Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Brad Perry, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a.k.a. urothelial carcinoma
            • Arises from transitional epithelial cells lining urinary tract
            • Most common malignancy of urinary system
            • Usually involves urinary bladder but can arise from urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

            • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

              • C-11 Acetate PET/CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • Artifacts and Quality Control

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Rais-Bahrami S et al: Contemporary role of advanced imaging for bladder cancer staging. Urol Oncol. 34(3):124-33, 2016
                                      2. Asai S et al: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 20(5):1042-7, 2015
                                      3. Nayak B et al: Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40(3):386-93, 2013
                                      4. Grassi I et al: The clinical use of PET with (11)C-acetate. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2(1):33-47, 2012
                                      5. Anjos DA et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT delayed images after diuretic for restaging invasive bladder cancer. J Nucl Med. 48(5):764-70, 2007
                                      6. Setty BN et al: State-of-the-art cross-sectional imaging in bladder cancer. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 36(2):83-96, 2007
                                      7. Jana S et al: Nuclear medicine studies of the prostate, testes, and bladder. Semin Nucl Med. 36(1):51-72, 2006
                                      8. Kamel EM et al: Forced diuresis improves the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET in abdominopelvic malignancies. J Nucl Med. 47(11):1803-7, 2006
                                      9. Liu IJ et al: Evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in metastatic transitional cell carcinoma with and without prior chemotherapy. Urol Int. 77(1):69-75, 2006
                                      10. Drieskens O et al: FDG-PET for preoperative staging of bladder cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 32(12):1412-7, 2005
                                      11. Urinary Bladder Cancer: Role of MR Imaging
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a.k.a. urothelial carcinoma
                                                • Arises from transitional epithelial cells lining urinary tract
                                                • Most common malignancy of urinary system
                                                • Usually involves urinary bladder but can arise from urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

                                                  • C-11 Acetate PET/CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        • Artifacts and Quality Control

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Rais-Bahrami S et al: Contemporary role of advanced imaging for bladder cancer staging. Urol Oncol. 34(3):124-33, 2016
                                                                          2. Asai S et al: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 20(5):1042-7, 2015
                                                                          3. Nayak B et al: Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40(3):386-93, 2013
                                                                          4. Grassi I et al: The clinical use of PET with (11)C-acetate. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2(1):33-47, 2012
                                                                          5. Anjos DA et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT delayed images after diuretic for restaging invasive bladder cancer. J Nucl Med. 48(5):764-70, 2007
                                                                          6. Setty BN et al: State-of-the-art cross-sectional imaging in bladder cancer. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 36(2):83-96, 2007
                                                                          7. Jana S et al: Nuclear medicine studies of the prostate, testes, and bladder. Semin Nucl Med. 36(1):51-72, 2006
                                                                          8. Kamel EM et al: Forced diuresis improves the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET in abdominopelvic malignancies. J Nucl Med. 47(11):1803-7, 2006
                                                                          9. Liu IJ et al: Evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in metastatic transitional cell carcinoma with and without prior chemotherapy. Urol Int. 77(1):69-75, 2006
                                                                          10. Drieskens O et al: FDG-PET for preoperative staging of bladder cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 32(12):1412-7, 2005
                                                                          11. Urinary Bladder Cancer: Role of MR Imaging