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Transverse Myelitis
Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (IATM)
            • Synonyms

              • Idiopathic transverse myelopathy
            • Definitions

              • Transverse myelitis (TM): Inflammatory disorder involving both halves of spinal cord, resulting in bilateral motor, sensory, & autonomic dysfunction
                • Pathogenetically heterogeneous inflammatory disorder of spinal cord
              • Must exclude other causes of spinal cord inflammation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Sorte DE et al: Longitudinally extensive myelopathy in children. Pediatr Radiol. 45(2):244-57; quiz 241-3, 2015
                                      2. Landau YE et al: Pediatric neurologic complications associated with influenza A H1N1. Pediatr Neurol. 44(1):47-51, 2011
                                      3. Scott TF et al: Evidence-based guideline: clinical evaluation and treatment of transverse myelitis: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 77(24):2128-34, 2011
                                      4. Bigi S et al: Acute transverse myelitis in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Infection. 38(5):413-6, 2010
                                      5. Agmon-Levin N et al: Transverse myelitis and vaccines: a multi-analysis. Lupus. 18(13):1198-204, 2009
                                      6. Csábi G et al: Transverse myelitis as a rare, serious complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Pediatr Neurol. 41(4):312-3, 2009
                                      7. Kalra V et al: Childhood acute transverse myelitis: clinical profile, outcome, and association with antiganglioside antibodies. J Child Neurol. 24(4):466-71, 2009
                                      8. Pandit L: Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders. Neurol India. 57(2):126-33, 2009
                                      9. Lee JW et al: Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic acute transverse myelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):W52-7, 2008
                                      10. Andronikou S et al: MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children. Pediatr Radiol. 33(9):624-9, 2003
                                      11. Kerr DA et al: Immunopathogenesis of acute transverse myelitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 15(3):339-47, 2002
                                      12. Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group: proposed diagnostic criteria and nosology of acute transverse myelitis. Neurology. 59(4):499-505, 2002
                                      13. Scotti G et al: Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute transverse myelopathy. The role of neuroradiological investigations and review of the literature. Neurol Sci. 22 Suppl 2:S69-73, 2001
                                      14. Misra UK et al: Role of MRI in acute transverse myelitis. Neurol India. 47(4):253-4, 1999
                                      15. Murthy JM et al: Acute transverse myelitis: MR characteristics. Neurol India. 47(4):290-3, 1999
                                      16. Isoda H et al: MR imaging of acute transverse myelitis (myelopathy). Radiat Med. 16(3):179-86, 1998
                                      17. Choi KH et al: Idiopathic transverse myelitis: MR characteristics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(6):1151-60, 1996
                                      18. Misra UK et al: A clinical, MRI and neurophysiological study of acute transverse myelitis. J Neurol Sci. 138(1-2):150-6, 1996
                                      19. Campi A et al: Acute transverse myelopathy: spinal and cranial MR study with clinical follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(1):115-23, 1995
                                      20. Jeffery DR et al: Transverse myelitis. Retrospective analysis of 33 cases, with differentiation of cases associated with multiple sclerosis and parainfectious events. Arch Neurol. 50(5):532-5, 1993
                                      21. Dunne K et al: Acute transverse myelopathy in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 28(2):198-204, 1986
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (IATM)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Idiopathic transverse myelopathy
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Transverse myelitis (TM): Inflammatory disorder involving both halves of spinal cord, resulting in bilateral motor, sensory, & autonomic dysfunction
                                                    • Pathogenetically heterogeneous inflammatory disorder of spinal cord
                                                  • Must exclude other causes of spinal cord inflammation

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Sorte DE et al: Longitudinally extensive myelopathy in children. Pediatr Radiol. 45(2):244-57; quiz 241-3, 2015
                                                                          2. Landau YE et al: Pediatric neurologic complications associated with influenza A H1N1. Pediatr Neurol. 44(1):47-51, 2011
                                                                          3. Scott TF et al: Evidence-based guideline: clinical evaluation and treatment of transverse myelitis: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 77(24):2128-34, 2011
                                                                          4. Bigi S et al: Acute transverse myelitis in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Infection. 38(5):413-6, 2010
                                                                          5. Agmon-Levin N et al: Transverse myelitis and vaccines: a multi-analysis. Lupus. 18(13):1198-204, 2009
                                                                          6. Csábi G et al: Transverse myelitis as a rare, serious complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Pediatr Neurol. 41(4):312-3, 2009
                                                                          7. Kalra V et al: Childhood acute transverse myelitis: clinical profile, outcome, and association with antiganglioside antibodies. J Child Neurol. 24(4):466-71, 2009
                                                                          8. Pandit L: Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders. Neurol India. 57(2):126-33, 2009
                                                                          9. Lee JW et al: Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic acute transverse myelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):W52-7, 2008
                                                                          10. Andronikou S et al: MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children. Pediatr Radiol. 33(9):624-9, 2003
                                                                          11. Kerr DA et al: Immunopathogenesis of acute transverse myelitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 15(3):339-47, 2002
                                                                          12. Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group: proposed diagnostic criteria and nosology of acute transverse myelitis. Neurology. 59(4):499-505, 2002
                                                                          13. Scotti G et al: Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute transverse myelopathy. The role of neuroradiological investigations and review of the literature. Neurol Sci. 22 Suppl 2:S69-73, 2001
                                                                          14. Misra UK et al: Role of MRI in acute transverse myelitis. Neurol India. 47(4):253-4, 1999
                                                                          15. Murthy JM et al: Acute transverse myelitis: MR characteristics. Neurol India. 47(4):290-3, 1999
                                                                          16. Isoda H et al: MR imaging of acute transverse myelitis (myelopathy). Radiat Med. 16(3):179-86, 1998
                                                                          17. Choi KH et al: Idiopathic transverse myelitis: MR characteristics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(6):1151-60, 1996
                                                                          18. Misra UK et al: A clinical, MRI and neurophysiological study of acute transverse myelitis. J Neurol Sci. 138(1-2):150-6, 1996
                                                                          19. Campi A et al: Acute transverse myelopathy: spinal and cranial MR study with clinical follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(1):115-23, 1995
                                                                          20. Jeffery DR et al: Transverse myelitis. Retrospective analysis of 33 cases, with differentiation of cases associated with multiple sclerosis and parainfectious events. Arch Neurol. 50(5):532-5, 1993
                                                                          21. Dunne K et al: Acute transverse myelopathy in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 28(2):198-204, 1986