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Tuberculous Osteomyelitis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Tuberculous spondylitis (TS)
            • Definitions

              • Granulomatous infection of spine and adjacent soft tissue secondary to tuberculosis (TB)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Liao Y et al: Is it necessary to perform the second surgery stage of anterior debridement in the treatment of spinal tuberculosis? World Neurosurg. 134:e956-67, 2020
                                        2. Wang P et al: Characteristics and management of spinal tuberculosis in tuberculosis endemic area of Guizhou province: a retrospective study of 597 patients in a teaching hospital. Biomed Res Int. 2020:1468457, 2020
                                        3. Khanna K et al: Spinal tuberculosis: a comprehensive review for the modern spine surgeon. Spine J. 19(11):1858-70, 2019
                                        4. Boody BS et al: Evaluation and management of pyogenic and tubercular spine infections. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 11(4):643-52, 2018
                                        5. Patel AR et al: Spinal epidural abscesses: risk factors, medical versus surgical management, a retrospective review of 128 cases. Spine J. 14(2):326-30, 2014
                                        6. Lee SW et al: Candida spondylitis: comparison of MRI findings with bacterial and tuberculous causes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):872-7, 2013
                                        7. Avadhani A et al: Isolated tuberculosis of the lumbar apophyseal joint. Spine J. 10(3):e1-4, 2010
                                        8. Ivo R et al: Tuberculous spondylitis and paravertebral abscess formation after kyphoplasty: A Case Report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(12):E559-63, 2010
                                        9. Kumar R et al: Role of interferon gamma release assay in the diagnosis of Pott disease. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(5):462-6, 2010
                                        10. Marais S et al: Neuroradiological features of the tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 14(2):188-96, 2010
                                        11. Oztekin O et al: Brucellar spondylodiscitis: magnetic resonance imaging features with conventional sequences and diffusion-weighted imaging. Radiol Med. 115(5):794-803, 2010
                                        12. Puraviappan P et al: Endoscopic, endonasal decompression of spinal stenosis with myelopathy secondary to cranio-vertebral tuberculosis: two cases. J Laryngol Otol. 124(7):816-9, 2010
                                        13. Bozgeyik Z et al: Clinical and MRI findings of brucellar spondylodiscitis. Eur J Radiol. 67(1):153-8, 2008
                                        14. Colmenero JD et al: Clinical findings, therapeutic approach, and outcome of brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis. Clin Infect Dis. 46(3):426-33, 2008
                                        15. Turunc T et al: A comparative analysis of tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spontaneous spondylodiscitis patients. J Infect. 55(2):158-63, 2007
                                        16. Akman S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of tuberculous spondylitis. Orthopedics. 26(1):69-73, 2003
                                        17. Narlawar RS et al: Isolated tuberculosis of posterior elements of spine: magnetic resonance imaging findings in 33 patients. Spine. 27(3):275-81, 2002
                                        18. Gouliamos AD et al: MR imaging of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 11(4):575-9, 2001
                                        19. Hadjipavlou AG et al: The effectiveness of gallium citrate Ga 67 radionuclide imaging in vertebral osteomyelitis revisited. Am J Orthop. 27(3):179-83, 1998
                                        20. Sharif HS et al: Granulomatous spinal infections: MR imaging. Radiology. 177(1):101-7, 1990
                                        21. Sharif HS et al: Brucellar and tuberculous spondylitis: comparative imaging features. Radiology. 171(2):419-25, 1989
                                        22. Smith AS et al: MR imaging characteristics of tuberculous spondylitis vs vertebral osteomyelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 153(2):399-405, 1989
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Tuberculous spondylitis (TS)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Granulomatous infection of spine and adjacent soft tissue secondary to tuberculosis (TB)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Liao Y et al: Is it necessary to perform the second surgery stage of anterior debridement in the treatment of spinal tuberculosis? World Neurosurg. 134:e956-67, 2020
                                                                              2. Wang P et al: Characteristics and management of spinal tuberculosis in tuberculosis endemic area of Guizhou province: a retrospective study of 597 patients in a teaching hospital. Biomed Res Int. 2020:1468457, 2020
                                                                              3. Khanna K et al: Spinal tuberculosis: a comprehensive review for the modern spine surgeon. Spine J. 19(11):1858-70, 2019
                                                                              4. Boody BS et al: Evaluation and management of pyogenic and tubercular spine infections. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 11(4):643-52, 2018
                                                                              5. Patel AR et al: Spinal epidural abscesses: risk factors, medical versus surgical management, a retrospective review of 128 cases. Spine J. 14(2):326-30, 2014
                                                                              6. Lee SW et al: Candida spondylitis: comparison of MRI findings with bacterial and tuberculous causes. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):872-7, 2013
                                                                              7. Avadhani A et al: Isolated tuberculosis of the lumbar apophyseal joint. Spine J. 10(3):e1-4, 2010
                                                                              8. Ivo R et al: Tuberculous spondylitis and paravertebral abscess formation after kyphoplasty: A Case Report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(12):E559-63, 2010
                                                                              9. Kumar R et al: Role of interferon gamma release assay in the diagnosis of Pott disease. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(5):462-6, 2010
                                                                              10. Marais S et al: Neuroradiological features of the tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 14(2):188-96, 2010
                                                                              11. Oztekin O et al: Brucellar spondylodiscitis: magnetic resonance imaging features with conventional sequences and diffusion-weighted imaging. Radiol Med. 115(5):794-803, 2010
                                                                              12. Puraviappan P et al: Endoscopic, endonasal decompression of spinal stenosis with myelopathy secondary to cranio-vertebral tuberculosis: two cases. J Laryngol Otol. 124(7):816-9, 2010
                                                                              13. Bozgeyik Z et al: Clinical and MRI findings of brucellar spondylodiscitis. Eur J Radiol. 67(1):153-8, 2008
                                                                              14. Colmenero JD et al: Clinical findings, therapeutic approach, and outcome of brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis. Clin Infect Dis. 46(3):426-33, 2008
                                                                              15. Turunc T et al: A comparative analysis of tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spontaneous spondylodiscitis patients. J Infect. 55(2):158-63, 2007
                                                                              16. Akman S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of tuberculous spondylitis. Orthopedics. 26(1):69-73, 2003
                                                                              17. Narlawar RS et al: Isolated tuberculosis of posterior elements of spine: magnetic resonance imaging findings in 33 patients. Spine. 27(3):275-81, 2002
                                                                              18. Gouliamos AD et al: MR imaging of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 11(4):575-9, 2001
                                                                              19. Hadjipavlou AG et al: The effectiveness of gallium citrate Ga 67 radionuclide imaging in vertebral osteomyelitis revisited. Am J Orthop. 27(3):179-83, 1998
                                                                              20. Sharif HS et al: Granulomatous spinal infections: MR imaging. Radiology. 177(1):101-7, 1990
                                                                              21. Sharif HS et al: Brucellar and tuberculous spondylitis: comparative imaging features. Radiology. 171(2):419-25, 1989
                                                                              22. Smith AS et al: MR imaging characteristics of tuberculous spondylitis vs vertebral osteomyelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 153(2):399-405, 1989