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Type 1 Vascular Malformation (dAVF)
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Type 1 spinal AVF, dural AVF (dAVF)
              • Dural fistula; type 1 spinal vascular malformation; radiculomeningeal fistula
            • Definitions

              • Spinal arteriovenous (AV) fistula, present within dura, with intradural distended draining veins

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Oda S et al: Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3T MR and 64-row multidetector CT angiography for the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(2):407-12, 2014
                                              2. Saindane AM et al: Contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA for pre-angiographic evaluation of suspected spinal dural arterial venous fistulas. J Neurointerv Surg. ePub, 2014
                                              3. Kaufmann TJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in treated spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: lack of correlation with clinical outcomes. J Neurosurg Spine. 14(4):548-54, 2011
                                              4. Klopper HB et al: Type I spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: historical review and illustrative case. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E3, 2009
                                              5. Krings T et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(4):639-48, 2009
                                              6. Sivakumar W et al: Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 26(5):E15, 2009
                                              7. Farb RI et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula localization with a technique of first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography: initial experience. Radiology. 222(3): 843-50, 2002
                                              8. Spetzler RF et al: Modified classification of spinal cord vascular lesions. J Neurosurg. 96(2 Suppl):145-56, 2002
                                              9. Van Dijk JM et al: Multidisciplinary management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical presentation and long-term follow-up in 49 patients. Stroke. 33(6): 1578-83, 2002
                                              10. Mascalchi M et al: Spinal vascular malformations: MR angiography after treatment. Radiology. 219(2): 346-53, 2001
                                              11. Song JK et al: Surgical and endovascular treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: long-term disability assessment and prognostic factors. J Neurosurg. 94(2 Suppl): 199-204, 2001
                                              12. Hurst RW et al: Peripheral spinal cord hypointensity on T2-weighted MR images: a reliable imaging sign of venous hypertensive myelopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(4): 781-6, 2000
                                              13. Bowen BC et al: MR angiography of the spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 6(1): 165-78, 1998
                                              14. Anson J et al: Classification of spinal arteriovenous malformations and implications for treatment. BNI Quarterly. 8: 2-8, 1992
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Type 1 spinal AVF, dural AVF (dAVF)
                                                          • Dural fistula; type 1 spinal vascular malformation; radiculomeningeal fistula
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Spinal arteriovenous (AV) fistula, present within dura, with intradural distended draining veins

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Oda S et al: Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3T MR and 64-row multidetector CT angiography for the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(2):407-12, 2014
                                                                                          2. Saindane AM et al: Contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA for pre-angiographic evaluation of suspected spinal dural arterial venous fistulas. J Neurointerv Surg. ePub, 2014
                                                                                          3. Kaufmann TJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in treated spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: lack of correlation with clinical outcomes. J Neurosurg Spine. 14(4):548-54, 2011
                                                                                          4. Klopper HB et al: Type I spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: historical review and illustrative case. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E3, 2009
                                                                                          5. Krings T et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(4):639-48, 2009
                                                                                          6. Sivakumar W et al: Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 26(5):E15, 2009
                                                                                          7. Farb RI et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula localization with a technique of first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography: initial experience. Radiology. 222(3): 843-50, 2002
                                                                                          8. Spetzler RF et al: Modified classification of spinal cord vascular lesions. J Neurosurg. 96(2 Suppl):145-56, 2002
                                                                                          9. Van Dijk JM et al: Multidisciplinary management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical presentation and long-term follow-up in 49 patients. Stroke. 33(6): 1578-83, 2002
                                                                                          10. Mascalchi M et al: Spinal vascular malformations: MR angiography after treatment. Radiology. 219(2): 346-53, 2001
                                                                                          11. Song JK et al: Surgical and endovascular treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: long-term disability assessment and prognostic factors. J Neurosurg. 94(2 Suppl): 199-204, 2001
                                                                                          12. Hurst RW et al: Peripheral spinal cord hypointensity on T2-weighted MR images: a reliable imaging sign of venous hypertensive myelopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(4): 781-6, 2000
                                                                                          13. Bowen BC et al: MR angiography of the spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 6(1): 165-78, 1998
                                                                                          14. Anson J et al: Classification of spinal arteriovenous malformations and implications for treatment. BNI Quarterly. 8: 2-8, 1992