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Type 2 Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Glomus-type AVM, plexiform AVM
              • Definitions

                • Direct arterial/venous communications forming compact nidus within cord
                • General spine vascular malformation classification
                  • Type 1: Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
                    • Most common type (up to 80%)
                  • Type 2: Intramedullary glomus-type AVM (similar to brain AVM)
                  • Type 3: Juvenile-type AVM (intramedullary extramedullary)
                  • Type 4: Intradural extra-/perimedullary AVF

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Gross BA et al: Spinal glomus (type II) arteriovenous malformations: a pooled analysis of hemorrhage risk and results of intervention. Neurosurgery. 72(1):25-32, 2013
                                                2. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                                                3. Gross BA et al: Hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformations during pregnancy. Neurosurgery. 71(2):349-55; discussion 355-6, 2012
                                                4. Qureshi AI: A new classification scheme for spinal vascular abnormalities based on angiographic features. J Neuroimaging. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                                5. Boström A et al: Spinal glomus-type arteriovenous malformations: microsurgical treatment in 20 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):423-9, 2009
                                                6. Eddleman CS et al: Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E9, 2009
                                                7. Johnson WD et al: Variety of spinal vascular pathology seen in adult Cobb syndrome. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):430-5, 2009
                                                8. Krings T et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(4):639-48, 2009
                                                9. Spetzler RF et al: Modified classification of spinal cord vascular lesions. J Neurosurg. 96(2 Suppl):145-56, 2002
                                                10. Bemporad JA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord vascular malformations with an emphasis on the cervical spine. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 11(1):viii, 111-29, 2001
                                                11. Mascalchi M et al: Spinal vascular malformations: MR angiography after treatment. Radiology. 219(2): 346-53, 2001
                                                12. Hasegawa M et al: The efficacy of CT arteriography for spinal arteriovenous fistula surgery: technical note. Neuroradiology. 41(12): 915-9, 1999
                                                13. Mascalchi M et al: Contrast-enhanced time-resolved MR angiography of spinal vascular malformations. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 23(3): 341-5, 1999
                                                14. Morgan MK: Outcome from treatment for spinal arteriovenous malformation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 10(1):113-9, 1999
                                                15. Bao YH et al: Classification and therapeutic modalities of spinal vascular malformations in 80 patients. Neurosurgery. 40(1):75-81, 1997
                                                16. Hasuo K et al: Contrast-enhanced MRI in spinal arteriovenous malformations and fistulae before and after embolisation therapy. Neuroradiology. 38(7):609-14, 1996
                                                17. Mourier KL et al: Intradural perimedullary arteriovenous fistulae: results of surgical and endovascular treatment in a series of 35 cases. Neurosurgery. 32(6):885-91; discussion 891, 1993
                                                18. Horton JA et al: Embolization of intramedullary arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 7(1):113-8, 1986
                                                19. Theron J et al: Spinal arteriovenous malformations: advances in therapeutic embolization. Radiology. 158(1):163-9, 1986
                                                20. Scialfa G et al: Embolization of vascular malformations of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg Sci. 29(1):1-9, 1985
                                                21. Riche MC et al: Embolization of spinal cord vascular malformations via the anterior spinal artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 4(3):378-81, 1983
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Glomus-type AVM, plexiform AVM
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Direct arterial/venous communications forming compact nidus within cord
                                                              • General spine vascular malformation classification
                                                                • Type 1: Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
                                                                  • Most common type (up to 80%)
                                                                • Type 2: Intramedullary glomus-type AVM (similar to brain AVM)
                                                                • Type 3: Juvenile-type AVM (intramedullary extramedullary)
                                                                • Type 4: Intradural extra-/perimedullary AVF

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Gross BA et al: Spinal glomus (type II) arteriovenous malformations: a pooled analysis of hemorrhage risk and results of intervention. Neurosurgery. 72(1):25-32, 2013
                                                                                              2. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                                                                                              3. Gross BA et al: Hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformations during pregnancy. Neurosurgery. 71(2):349-55; discussion 355-6, 2012
                                                                                              4. Qureshi AI: A new classification scheme for spinal vascular abnormalities based on angiographic features. J Neuroimaging. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                                                                              5. Boström A et al: Spinal glomus-type arteriovenous malformations: microsurgical treatment in 20 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):423-9, 2009
                                                                                              6. Eddleman CS et al: Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E9, 2009
                                                                                              7. Johnson WD et al: Variety of spinal vascular pathology seen in adult Cobb syndrome. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):430-5, 2009
                                                                                              8. Krings T et al: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(4):639-48, 2009
                                                                                              9. Spetzler RF et al: Modified classification of spinal cord vascular lesions. J Neurosurg. 96(2 Suppl):145-56, 2002
                                                                                              10. Bemporad JA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord vascular malformations with an emphasis on the cervical spine. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 11(1):viii, 111-29, 2001
                                                                                              11. Mascalchi M et al: Spinal vascular malformations: MR angiography after treatment. Radiology. 219(2): 346-53, 2001
                                                                                              12. Hasegawa M et al: The efficacy of CT arteriography for spinal arteriovenous fistula surgery: technical note. Neuroradiology. 41(12): 915-9, 1999
                                                                                              13. Mascalchi M et al: Contrast-enhanced time-resolved MR angiography of spinal vascular malformations. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 23(3): 341-5, 1999
                                                                                              14. Morgan MK: Outcome from treatment for spinal arteriovenous malformation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 10(1):113-9, 1999
                                                                                              15. Bao YH et al: Classification and therapeutic modalities of spinal vascular malformations in 80 patients. Neurosurgery. 40(1):75-81, 1997
                                                                                              16. Hasuo K et al: Contrast-enhanced MRI in spinal arteriovenous malformations and fistulae before and after embolisation therapy. Neuroradiology. 38(7):609-14, 1996
                                                                                              17. Mourier KL et al: Intradural perimedullary arteriovenous fistulae: results of surgical and endovascular treatment in a series of 35 cases. Neurosurgery. 32(6):885-91; discussion 891, 1993
                                                                                              18. Horton JA et al: Embolization of intramedullary arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 7(1):113-8, 1986
                                                                                              19. Theron J et al: Spinal arteriovenous malformations: advances in therapeutic embolization. Radiology. 158(1):163-9, 1986
                                                                                              20. Scialfa G et al: Embolization of vascular malformations of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg Sci. 29(1):1-9, 1985
                                                                                              21. Riche MC et al: Embolization of spinal cord vascular malformations via the anterior spinal artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 4(3):378-81, 1983