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Urinary Bladder Carcinoma Staging
Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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8

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer History

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Deuker M et al: Bladder cancer: a comparison between non-urothelial variant histology and urothelial carcinoma across all stages and treatment modalities. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 19(1):60-8.e1, 2021
                                2. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Surveillance of Bladder Cancer: 2021 Update. J Am Coll Radiol. 18(5S):S126-38, 2021
                                3. Lenis AT et al: Bladder cancer: a review. JAMA. 324(19):1980-91, 2020
                                4. Barchetti G et al: Multiparametric MRI of the bladder: inter-observer agreement and accuracy with the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) at a single reference center. Eur Radiol. 29(10):5498-506, 2019
                                5. Margolis DJA et al: Vying for standardization of bladder cancer MRI interpretation and reporting: VI-RADS. Radiology. 291(3):675-76, 2019
                                6. Mirmomen SM et al: Preoperative imaging for locoregional staging of bladder cancer. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(12):3843-57, 2019
                                7. Wang H et al: Multiparametric MRI for bladder cancer: validation of VI-RADS for the detection of detrusor muscle invasion. Radiology. 291(3):668-74, 2019
                                8. Panebianco V et al: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: development of VI-RADS (vesical imaging-reporting and data system). Eur Urol. 74(3):294-306, 2018
                                9. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                10. Abou-El-Ghar ME et al: Bladder cancer: diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with gross hematuria. Radiology. 251(2):415-21, 2009
                                11. Koster IM et al: Best cases from the AFIP: urachal carcinoma. Radiographics. 29(3):939-42, 2009
                                12. Takeuchi M et al: Urinary bladder cancer: diffusion-weighted MR imaging--accuracy for diagnosing T stage and estimating histologic grade. Radiology. 251(1):112-21, 2009
                                13. Tuncbilek N et al: Value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and correlation with tumor angiogenesis in bladder cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):949-55, 2009
                                14. Watanabe H et al: Preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer: does diffusion-weighted MRI have supplementary value? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1361-6, 2009
                                15. Canter D et al: Hydronephrosis is an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome in patients treated for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with radical cystectomy. Urology. 72(2):379-83, 2008
                                16. Sadow CA et al: Bladder cancer detection with CT urography in an academic medical center. Radiology. 249(1):195-202, 2008
                                17. Wallmeroth A et al: Patterns of metastasis in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pT2-4): an autopsy study on 367 patients. Urol Int. 62(2):69-75, 1999
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer History

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Deuker M et al: Bladder cancer: a comparison between non-urothelial variant histology and urothelial carcinoma across all stages and treatment modalities. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 19(1):60-8.e1, 2021
                                                              2. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Surveillance of Bladder Cancer: 2021 Update. J Am Coll Radiol. 18(5S):S126-38, 2021
                                                              3. Lenis AT et al: Bladder cancer: a review. JAMA. 324(19):1980-91, 2020
                                                              4. Barchetti G et al: Multiparametric MRI of the bladder: inter-observer agreement and accuracy with the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) at a single reference center. Eur Radiol. 29(10):5498-506, 2019
                                                              5. Margolis DJA et al: Vying for standardization of bladder cancer MRI interpretation and reporting: VI-RADS. Radiology. 291(3):675-76, 2019
                                                              6. Mirmomen SM et al: Preoperative imaging for locoregional staging of bladder cancer. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(12):3843-57, 2019
                                                              7. Wang H et al: Multiparametric MRI for bladder cancer: validation of VI-RADS for the detection of detrusor muscle invasion. Radiology. 291(3):668-74, 2019
                                                              8. Panebianco V et al: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: development of VI-RADS (vesical imaging-reporting and data system). Eur Urol. 74(3):294-306, 2018
                                                              9. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                                              10. Abou-El-Ghar ME et al: Bladder cancer: diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with gross hematuria. Radiology. 251(2):415-21, 2009
                                                              11. Koster IM et al: Best cases from the AFIP: urachal carcinoma. Radiographics. 29(3):939-42, 2009
                                                              12. Takeuchi M et al: Urinary bladder cancer: diffusion-weighted MR imaging--accuracy for diagnosing T stage and estimating histologic grade. Radiology. 251(1):112-21, 2009
                                                              13. Tuncbilek N et al: Value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and correlation with tumor angiogenesis in bladder cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):949-55, 2009
                                                              14. Watanabe H et al: Preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer: does diffusion-weighted MRI have supplementary value? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1361-6, 2009
                                                              15. Canter D et al: Hydronephrosis is an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome in patients treated for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with radical cystectomy. Urology. 72(2):379-83, 2008
                                                              16. Sadow CA et al: Bladder cancer detection with CT urography in an academic medical center. Radiology. 249(1):195-202, 2008
                                                              17. Wallmeroth A et al: Patterns of metastasis in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pT2-4): an autopsy study on 367 patients. Urol Int. 62(2):69-75, 1999