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Urolithiasis
Katherine To'o, MD; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Ureterovesicular junction (UVJ); ureteropelvic junction (UPJ); intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
              • Synonyms

                • Urinary tract stone, urinary calculous disease, nephrolithiasis, ureterolithiasis, vesicolithiasis
              • Definitions

                • Macroscopic concretions of crystals in urinary system, sometimes mixed with proteins

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Radiographic Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • MR Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Spettel S et al: Using Hounsfield unit measurement and urine parameters to predict uric acid stones. Urology. 82(1):22-6, 2013
                                          2. Cheng PM et al: What the radiologist needs to know about urolithiasis: part 2--CT findings, reporting, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):W548-54, 2012
                                          3. Cheng PM et al: What the radiologist needs to know about urolithiasis: part 1--pathogenesis, types, assessment, and variant anatomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):W540-7, 2012
                                          4. Kambadakone AR et al: New and evolving concepts in the imaging and management of urolithiasis: urologists' perspective. Radiographics. 30(3):603-23, 2010
                                          5. Eisner BH et al: Nephrolithiasis: what surgeons need to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):1274-8, 2011
                                          6. Preminger GM et al: AUA/EAU 2007 Guideline for the Management of Ureteral Calculi. American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.; European Association of Urology. http://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Ureteral-Calculi.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2-14
                                          7. Fulgham PF et al: AUA 2012 Guideline: Clinical Effectiveness Protocols for Imaging in the Management of Ureteral Calculous Disease: AUA Technology Assessment. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Imaging-Assessment.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                          8. Preminger GM et al: AUA 2005 Report on the Management of Staghorn Calculi. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Staghorn-Calculi.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                          9. Türk C et al: EAU 2012 Guidelines on Urolithiasis. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/20_Urolithiasis_LR-March-13-2012.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                          10. Oh Y et al: Urolithiasis. In Kim S: Radiology Illustrated: Uroradiology. 2nd ed. Berlin New York: Springer. 552-95, 2012 
                                          11. Liu CC et al: Matrix stone. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):810-3, 2003
                                          12. Yang JM et al: Transvaginal sonography in the assessment of distal ureteral calculi. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(6):658-62, 2005
                                          13. Palmer JS et al: Diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis: role of ultrasound and computerized tomography. J Urol. 174(4 Pt 1):1413-6, 2005
                                          14. Tack D et al: Low-dose unenhanced multidetector CT of patients with suspected renal colic. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(2):305-11, 2003
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Ureterovesicular junction (UVJ); ureteropelvic junction (UPJ); intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Urinary tract stone, urinary calculous disease, nephrolithiasis, ureterolithiasis, vesicolithiasis
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Macroscopic concretions of crystals in urinary system, sometimes mixed with proteins

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Spettel S et al: Using Hounsfield unit measurement and urine parameters to predict uric acid stones. Urology. 82(1):22-6, 2013
                                                                                  2. Cheng PM et al: What the radiologist needs to know about urolithiasis: part 2--CT findings, reporting, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):W548-54, 2012
                                                                                  3. Cheng PM et al: What the radiologist needs to know about urolithiasis: part 1--pathogenesis, types, assessment, and variant anatomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):W540-7, 2012
                                                                                  4. Kambadakone AR et al: New and evolving concepts in the imaging and management of urolithiasis: urologists' perspective. Radiographics. 30(3):603-23, 2010
                                                                                  5. Eisner BH et al: Nephrolithiasis: what surgeons need to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):1274-8, 2011
                                                                                  6. Preminger GM et al: AUA/EAU 2007 Guideline for the Management of Ureteral Calculi. American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.; European Association of Urology. http://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Ureteral-Calculi.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2-14
                                                                                  7. Fulgham PF et al: AUA 2012 Guideline: Clinical Effectiveness Protocols for Imaging in the Management of Ureteral Calculous Disease: AUA Technology Assessment. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Imaging-Assessment.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                                                                  8. Preminger GM et al: AUA 2005 Report on the Management of Staghorn Calculi. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Staghorn-Calculi.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                                                                  9. Türk C et al: EAU 2012 Guidelines on Urolithiasis. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/20_Urolithiasis_LR-March-13-2012.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2014
                                                                                  10. Oh Y et al: Urolithiasis. In Kim S: Radiology Illustrated: Uroradiology. 2nd ed. Berlin New York: Springer. 552-95, 2012 
                                                                                  11. Liu CC et al: Matrix stone. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):810-3, 2003
                                                                                  12. Yang JM et al: Transvaginal sonography in the assessment of distal ureteral calculi. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(6):658-62, 2005
                                                                                  13. Palmer JS et al: Diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis: role of ultrasound and computerized tomography. J Urol. 174(4 Pt 1):1413-6, 2005
                                                                                  14. Tack D et al: Low-dose unenhanced multidetector CT of patients with suspected renal colic. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(2):305-11, 2003