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Valproate Embryopathy
Janice L. B. Byrne, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Valproic acid (VPA) embryopathy, fetal valproate syndrome
            • Definitions

              • Fetal exposure to antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA), characterized by dysmorphic facial appearance, major and minor anomalies, central nervous system dysfunction

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              Selected References

                              1. Bromley RL et al: Intellectual functioning in clinically confirmed fetal valproate syndrome. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 71:16-21, 2019
                              2. Tomson T et al: Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs. Curr Opin Neurol. 32(2):246-52, 2019
                              3. Vajda FJE et al: Antiepileptic drugs and foetal malformation: analysis of 20 years of data in a pregnancy register. Seizure. 65:6-11, 2019
                              4. Ornoy A et al: Is post exposure prevention of teratogenic damage possible: Studies on diabetes, valproic acid, alcohol and anti folates in pregnancy: Animal studies with reflection to human. Reprod Toxicol. 80:92-104, 2018
                              5. Veroniki AA et al: Comparative safety of antiepileptic drugs for neurological development in children exposed during pregnancy and breast feeding: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 7(7):e017248, 2017
                              6. Veiby G et al: Fetal growth restriction and birth defects with newer and older antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. J Neurol. 261(3):579-88, 2014
                              7. Vajda FJ et al: Dose dependence of fetal malformations associated with valproate. Neurology. 81(11):999-1003, 2013
                              8. Holmes LB et al: Fetal effects of anticonvulsant polytherapies: different risks from different drug combinations. Arch Neurol. 68(10):1275-81, 2011
                              9. Tomson T et al: Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry. Lancet Neurol. 10(7):609-17, 2011
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Valproic acid (VPA) embryopathy, fetal valproate syndrome
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Fetal exposure to antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA), characterized by dysmorphic facial appearance, major and minor anomalies, central nervous system dysfunction

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Bromley RL et al: Intellectual functioning in clinically confirmed fetal valproate syndrome. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 71:16-21, 2019
                                                          2. Tomson T et al: Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs. Curr Opin Neurol. 32(2):246-52, 2019
                                                          3. Vajda FJE et al: Antiepileptic drugs and foetal malformation: analysis of 20 years of data in a pregnancy register. Seizure. 65:6-11, 2019
                                                          4. Ornoy A et al: Is post exposure prevention of teratogenic damage possible: Studies on diabetes, valproic acid, alcohol and anti folates in pregnancy: Animal studies with reflection to human. Reprod Toxicol. 80:92-104, 2018
                                                          5. Veroniki AA et al: Comparative safety of antiepileptic drugs for neurological development in children exposed during pregnancy and breast feeding: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 7(7):e017248, 2017
                                                          6. Veiby G et al: Fetal growth restriction and birth defects with newer and older antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. J Neurol. 261(3):579-88, 2014
                                                          7. Vajda FJ et al: Dose dependence of fetal malformations associated with valproate. Neurology. 81(11):999-1003, 2013
                                                          8. Holmes LB et al: Fetal effects of anticonvulsant polytherapies: different risks from different drug combinations. Arch Neurol. 68(10):1275-81, 2011
                                                          9. Tomson T et al: Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry. Lancet Neurol. 10(7):609-17, 2011