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Valve and Annular Calcification
Brett W. Carter, MD, CPPS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Caseous calcification of mitral annulus (CCMA)
              • Mitral annular calcification (MAC)
            • Definitions

              • Calcification of valve leaflet or annulus

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Fletcher AJ et al: Imaging aortic valve calcification: significance, approach and implications. Clin Radiol. 76(1):15-26, 2021
                                        2. Pawade T et al: Why and how to measure aortic valve calcification in patients with aortic stenosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 12(9):1835-48, 2019
                                        3. Praz F et al: Imaging in patients with severe mitral annular calcification: insights from a multicentre experience using transatrial balloon-expandable valve replacement. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 20(12):1395-406, 2019
                                        4. Eleid MF et al: Severe mitral annular calcification: multimodality imaging for therapeutic strategies and interventions. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 9(11):1318-37, 2016
                                        5. Ferguson EC et al: Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs. Clin Radiol. 65(9):685-94, 2010
                                        6. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009
                                        7. Allison MA et al: Mitral and aortic annular calcification are highly associated with systemic calcified atherosclerosis. Circulation. 113(6):861-6, 2006
                                        8. Vogel-Claussen J et al: Cardiac valve assessment with MR imaging and 64-section multi-detector row CT. Radiographics. 26(6):1769-84, 2006
                                        9. Boxt LM: CT of valvular heart disease. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 21(1):105-13, 2005
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Caseous calcification of mitral annulus (CCMA)
                                                    • Mitral annular calcification (MAC)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Calcification of valve leaflet or annulus

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Fletcher AJ et al: Imaging aortic valve calcification: significance, approach and implications. Clin Radiol. 76(1):15-26, 2021
                                                                              2. Pawade T et al: Why and how to measure aortic valve calcification in patients with aortic stenosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 12(9):1835-48, 2019
                                                                              3. Praz F et al: Imaging in patients with severe mitral annular calcification: insights from a multicentre experience using transatrial balloon-expandable valve replacement. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 20(12):1395-406, 2019
                                                                              4. Eleid MF et al: Severe mitral annular calcification: multimodality imaging for therapeutic strategies and interventions. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 9(11):1318-37, 2016
                                                                              5. Ferguson EC et al: Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs. Clin Radiol. 65(9):685-94, 2010
                                                                              6. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009
                                                                              7. Allison MA et al: Mitral and aortic annular calcification are highly associated with systemic calcified atherosclerosis. Circulation. 113(6):861-6, 2006
                                                                              8. Vogel-Claussen J et al: Cardiac valve assessment with MR imaging and 64-section multi-detector row CT. Radiographics. 26(6):1769-84, 2006
                                                                              9. Boxt LM: CT of valvular heart disease. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 21(1):105-13, 2005