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Varicocele
Mitchell Tublin, MD; R. Brooke Jeffrey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Dilatation of veins of pampiniform plexus > 2-3 mm diameter secondary to retrograde flow in internal spermatic vein

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Other Modality Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Lotti F et al: Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 21(1):56-83, 2015
                                        2. Iaccarino V et al: Interventional radiology of male varicocele: current status. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 35(6):1263-80, 2012
                                        3. Shiraishi K et al: Pathophysiology of varicocele in male infertility in the era of assisted reproductive technology. Int J Urol. 19(6):538-50, 2012
                                        4. Stahl P et al: Standardization and documentation of varicocele evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 21(6):500-5, 2011
                                        5. Schurich M et al: The role of ultrasound in assessment of male fertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 144 Suppl 1:S192-8, 2009
                                        6. Bucci S et al: Intratesticular varicocele: evaluation using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound. World J Urol. 26(1):87-9, 2008
                                        7. Castagnetti M et al: Evolving management of adolescent varicocele. J Pediatr Urol. 4(2):107-12, 2008
                                        8. Flacke S et al: Embolization of varicocles: pretreatment sperm motility predicts later pregnancy in partners of infertile men. Radiology. 248(2):540-9, 2008
                                        9. Preston MA et al: Conservative management of adolescent varicoceles: a retrospective review. Urology. 72(1):77-80, 2008
                                        10. Sakamoto H et al: Is varicocele associated with underlying venous abnormalities? Varicocele and the prostatic venous plexus. J Urol. 180(4):1427-31, 2008
                                        11. Zampieri N et al: Varicocele in adolescents: a 6-year longitudinal and followup observational study. J Urol. 180(4 Suppl):1653-6; discussion 1656, 2008
                                        12. Zumrutbas AE et al: Is the presence of venous reflux really significant in the diagnosis of varicocele? Int Urol Nephrol. 40(4):983-7, 2008
                                        13. Beutner S et al: Treatment of varicocele with reference to age: a retrospective comparison of three minimally invasive procedures. Surg Endosc. 21(1):61-5, 2007
                                        14. De Sanctis V et al: Varicocele in the adolescent. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 5(1):468-70, 2007
                                        15. Qublan HS et al: Sonographic spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in infertile men. J Clin Ultrasound. 35(8):437-41, 2007
                                        16. Cimador M et al: The role of Doppler ultrasonography in determining the proper surgical approach to the management of varicocele in children and adolescents. BJU Int. 97(6):1291-7, 2006
                                        17. Lim KB: The most common reversible cause of male factor infertility, varicoceles remain a controversial area of urology. Eur Urol. 50(2):350, 2006
                                        18. Sakamoto H et al: Color Doppler ultrasonography as a routine clinical examination in male infertility. Int J Urol. 13(8):1073-8, 2006
                                        19. Beddy P et al: Testicular varicoceles. Clin Radiol. 60(12):1248-55, 2005
                                        20. Kessler A et al: Intratesticular varicocele: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 24(12):1711-6, 2005
                                        21. Evers JL et al: Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Lancet. 361(9372):1849-52, 2003
                                        22. Forti G et al: Varicocele and infertility. J Endocrinol Invest. 26(6):564-9, 2003
                                        23. Naughton CK et al: Pathophysiology of varicoceles in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 7(5):473-81, 2001
                                        24. Munden MM et al: Scrotal pathology in pediatrics with sonographic imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 29(6):185-205, 2000
                                        25. Cornud F et al: Varicocele: strategies in diagnosis and treatment. Eur Radiol. 9(3):536-45, 1999
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Dilatation of veins of pampiniform plexus > 2-3 mm diameter secondary to retrograde flow in internal spermatic vein

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Other Modality Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Lotti F et al: Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 21(1):56-83, 2015
                                                                              2. Iaccarino V et al: Interventional radiology of male varicocele: current status. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 35(6):1263-80, 2012
                                                                              3. Shiraishi K et al: Pathophysiology of varicocele in male infertility in the era of assisted reproductive technology. Int J Urol. 19(6):538-50, 2012
                                                                              4. Stahl P et al: Standardization and documentation of varicocele evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 21(6):500-5, 2011
                                                                              5. Schurich M et al: The role of ultrasound in assessment of male fertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 144 Suppl 1:S192-8, 2009
                                                                              6. Bucci S et al: Intratesticular varicocele: evaluation using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound. World J Urol. 26(1):87-9, 2008
                                                                              7. Castagnetti M et al: Evolving management of adolescent varicocele. J Pediatr Urol. 4(2):107-12, 2008
                                                                              8. Flacke S et al: Embolization of varicocles: pretreatment sperm motility predicts later pregnancy in partners of infertile men. Radiology. 248(2):540-9, 2008
                                                                              9. Preston MA et al: Conservative management of adolescent varicoceles: a retrospective review. Urology. 72(1):77-80, 2008
                                                                              10. Sakamoto H et al: Is varicocele associated with underlying venous abnormalities? Varicocele and the prostatic venous plexus. J Urol. 180(4):1427-31, 2008
                                                                              11. Zampieri N et al: Varicocele in adolescents: a 6-year longitudinal and followup observational study. J Urol. 180(4 Suppl):1653-6; discussion 1656, 2008
                                                                              12. Zumrutbas AE et al: Is the presence of venous reflux really significant in the diagnosis of varicocele? Int Urol Nephrol. 40(4):983-7, 2008
                                                                              13. Beutner S et al: Treatment of varicocele with reference to age: a retrospective comparison of three minimally invasive procedures. Surg Endosc. 21(1):61-5, 2007
                                                                              14. De Sanctis V et al: Varicocele in the adolescent. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 5(1):468-70, 2007
                                                                              15. Qublan HS et al: Sonographic spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in infertile men. J Clin Ultrasound. 35(8):437-41, 2007
                                                                              16. Cimador M et al: The role of Doppler ultrasonography in determining the proper surgical approach to the management of varicocele in children and adolescents. BJU Int. 97(6):1291-7, 2006
                                                                              17. Lim KB: The most common reversible cause of male factor infertility, varicoceles remain a controversial area of urology. Eur Urol. 50(2):350, 2006
                                                                              18. Sakamoto H et al: Color Doppler ultrasonography as a routine clinical examination in male infertility. Int J Urol. 13(8):1073-8, 2006
                                                                              19. Beddy P et al: Testicular varicoceles. Clin Radiol. 60(12):1248-55, 2005
                                                                              20. Kessler A et al: Intratesticular varicocele: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 24(12):1711-6, 2005
                                                                              21. Evers JL et al: Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Lancet. 361(9372):1849-52, 2003
                                                                              22. Forti G et al: Varicocele and infertility. J Endocrinol Invest. 26(6):564-9, 2003
                                                                              23. Naughton CK et al: Pathophysiology of varicoceles in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 7(5):473-81, 2001
                                                                              24. Munden MM et al: Scrotal pathology in pediatrics with sonographic imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 29(6):185-205, 2000
                                                                              25. Cornud F et al: Varicocele: strategies in diagnosis and treatment. Eur Radiol. 9(3):536-45, 1999