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Varicocele
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Dilatation of veins of pampiniform plexus > 3 mm diameter secondary to retrograde flow in testicular vein

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Other Modality Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Itani M et al: Right-sided scrotal varicocele and its association with malignancy: a multi-institutional study. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(5):2140-5, 2021
                                    2. Freeman S et al: Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: guidelines and recommendations of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) for detection, classification, and grading. Eur Radiol. 30(1):11-25, 2020
                                    3. Gleason A et al: Isolated right-sided varicocele: Is further workup necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 212(4):802-7, 2019
                                    4. Arif C et al: Two case reports of varicocele rupture during sexual intercourse and review of the literature. Case Rep Urol. 2018:4068174, 2018
                                    5. Elmer DeWitt M et al: Isolated right varicocele and incidence of associated cancer. Urology. 117:82-5, 2018
                                    6. Clavijo RI et al: Varicoceles: prevalence and pathogenesis in adult men. Fertil Steril. 108(3):364-9, 2017
                                    7. Mittal PK et al: Role of imaging in the evaluation of male infertility. Radiographics. 160125, 2017
                                    8. Baigorri BF et al: Varicocele: a review. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(3):170-6, 2016
                                    9. Lomboy JR et al: The varicocele: clinical presentation, evaluation, and surgical management. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(3):163-9, 2016
                                    10. Lorenc T et al: The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of varicocele. J Ultrason. 16(67):359-70, 2016
                                    11. Lotti F et al: Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 21(1):56-83, 2015
                                    12. Pastuszak AW et al: Diagnostic and management approaches to pediatric and adolescent varicocele: a survey of pediatric urologists. Urology. 84(2):450-5, 2014
                                    13. Bucci S et al: Intratesticular varicocele: evaluation using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound. World J Urol. 26(1):87-9, 2008
                                    14. Flacke S et al: Embolization of varicocles: pretreatment sperm motility predicts later pregnancy in partners of infertile men. Radiology. 248(2):540-9, 2008
                                    15. Sakamoto H et al: Is varicocele associated with underlying venous abnormalities? Varicocele and the prostatic venous plexus. J Urol. 180(4):1427-31, 2008
                                    16. Qublan HS et al: Sonographic spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in infertile men. J Clin Ultrasound. 35(8):437-41, 2007
                                    17. Sakamoto H et al: Color Doppler ultrasonography as a routine clinical examination in male infertility. Int J Urol. 13(8):1073-8, 2006
                                    18. Kessler A et al: Intratesticular varicocele: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 24(12):1711-6, 2005
                                    19. Naughton CK et al: Pathophysiology of varicoceles in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 7(5):473-81, 2001
                                    20. Munden MM et al: Scrotal pathology in pediatrics with sonographic imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 29(6):185-205, 2000
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Dilatation of veins of pampiniform plexus > 3 mm diameter secondary to retrograde flow in testicular vein

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Other Modality Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Itani M et al: Right-sided scrotal varicocele and its association with malignancy: a multi-institutional study. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(5):2140-5, 2021
                                                                      2. Freeman S et al: Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: guidelines and recommendations of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) for detection, classification, and grading. Eur Radiol. 30(1):11-25, 2020
                                                                      3. Gleason A et al: Isolated right-sided varicocele: Is further workup necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 212(4):802-7, 2019
                                                                      4. Arif C et al: Two case reports of varicocele rupture during sexual intercourse and review of the literature. Case Rep Urol. 2018:4068174, 2018
                                                                      5. Elmer DeWitt M et al: Isolated right varicocele and incidence of associated cancer. Urology. 117:82-5, 2018
                                                                      6. Clavijo RI et al: Varicoceles: prevalence and pathogenesis in adult men. Fertil Steril. 108(3):364-9, 2017
                                                                      7. Mittal PK et al: Role of imaging in the evaluation of male infertility. Radiographics. 160125, 2017
                                                                      8. Baigorri BF et al: Varicocele: a review. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(3):170-6, 2016
                                                                      9. Lomboy JR et al: The varicocele: clinical presentation, evaluation, and surgical management. Semin Intervent Radiol. 33(3):163-9, 2016
                                                                      10. Lorenc T et al: The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of varicocele. J Ultrason. 16(67):359-70, 2016
                                                                      11. Lotti F et al: Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 21(1):56-83, 2015
                                                                      12. Pastuszak AW et al: Diagnostic and management approaches to pediatric and adolescent varicocele: a survey of pediatric urologists. Urology. 84(2):450-5, 2014
                                                                      13. Bucci S et al: Intratesticular varicocele: evaluation using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound. World J Urol. 26(1):87-9, 2008
                                                                      14. Flacke S et al: Embolization of varicocles: pretreatment sperm motility predicts later pregnancy in partners of infertile men. Radiology. 248(2):540-9, 2008
                                                                      15. Sakamoto H et al: Is varicocele associated with underlying venous abnormalities? Varicocele and the prostatic venous plexus. J Urol. 180(4):1427-31, 2008
                                                                      16. Qublan HS et al: Sonographic spectrum of scrotal abnormalities in infertile men. J Clin Ultrasound. 35(8):437-41, 2007
                                                                      17. Sakamoto H et al: Color Doppler ultrasonography as a routine clinical examination in male infertility. Int J Urol. 13(8):1073-8, 2006
                                                                      18. Kessler A et al: Intratesticular varicocele: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 24(12):1711-6, 2005
                                                                      19. Naughton CK et al: Pathophysiology of varicoceles in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 7(5):473-81, 2001
                                                                      20. Munden MM et al: Scrotal pathology in pediatrics with sonographic imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 29(6):185-205, 2000