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Vascular Anomaly
Esther H. Y. Hung, MBChB, FRCR, FHKCR, FHKAM (Radiology); James F. Griffith, MD, MRCP, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Term "vascular anomaly" comprises both hemangioma and vascular malformation
            • Differentiation based on cellular turnover, histologic features, natural history, and physical findings
          • Hemangioma
            • Benign vascular tumors of infancy and childhood
              • Feature cellular proliferation and hyperplasia
            • Grows after birth
            • Characterized by early proliferative stage and later involuting stage
          • Vascular malformation
            • Vascular dysplasia rather than actual tumor
              • Dysplastic vascular channels with normal endothelial turnover
            • Present at birth and grows commensurately with child without proliferation or involution
            • Classified according to predominant vessel type as venous, capillary, arterial, lymphatic, or combined type
              • Venous malformation most common type
              • Combined types: Arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, capillary-venous, lymphatic-venous, etc.
            • Can also be subclassified as low flow or high flow depending on flow dynamics
              • Low-flow vascular malformation: Venous, capillary, lymphatic, capillary-venous, or capillary-lymphatic-venous
              • High-flow vascular malformation: Arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • Radiographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Mulligan PR et al: Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches. Br J Radiol. 87(1035):20130392, 2014
                                      2. Dubois J et al: Vascular anomalies: what a radiologist needs to know. Pediatr Radiol. 40(6):895-905, 2010
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Term "vascular anomaly" comprises both hemangioma and vascular malformation
                                                • Differentiation based on cellular turnover, histologic features, natural history, and physical findings
                                              • Hemangioma
                                                • Benign vascular tumors of infancy and childhood
                                                  • Feature cellular proliferation and hyperplasia
                                                • Grows after birth
                                                • Characterized by early proliferative stage and later involuting stage
                                              • Vascular malformation
                                                • Vascular dysplasia rather than actual tumor
                                                  • Dysplastic vascular channels with normal endothelial turnover
                                                • Present at birth and grows commensurately with child without proliferation or involution
                                                • Classified according to predominant vessel type as venous, capillary, arterial, lymphatic, or combined type
                                                  • Venous malformation most common type
                                                  • Combined types: Arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, capillary-venous, lymphatic-venous, etc.
                                                • Can also be subclassified as low flow or high flow depending on flow dynamics
                                                  • Low-flow vascular malformation: Venous, capillary, lymphatic, capillary-venous, or capillary-lymphatic-venous
                                                  • High-flow vascular malformation: Arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Mulligan PR et al: Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches. Br J Radiol. 87(1035):20130392, 2014
                                                                          2. Dubois J et al: Vascular anomalies: what a radiologist needs to know. Pediatr Radiol. 40(6):895-905, 2010