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Vascular Dementia
Santhosh Gaddikeri, MD; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Vascular dementia (VaD)
            • Synonyms

              • Multiinfarct dementia (MID)
              • Vascular cognitive disorder (VCD)
              • Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)
              • Subcortical ischemic VaD
              • Poststroke dementia
            • Definitions

              • Dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease or ↓ cerebral blood flow (CBF)
              • VCI: Cognitive impairment caused by or associated with vascular factors
              • Secondary to repeated cerebral infarctions
              • Can occur alone or in association with Alzheimer disease (AD)
              • 2nd most common cause of dementia next to AD

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Alber J et al: White matter hyperintensities in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): knowledge gaps and opportunities. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 5:107-17, 2019
                                              2. Huang WQ et al: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) recommended as a regular magnetic resonance diagnosis for vascular dementia to identify independent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt treatment: a case study. Front Neurol. 10:262, 2019
                                              3. Lim J et al: Utilization of magnetic resonance imaging by comorbidity of patients with dementia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16(23), 2019
                                              4. Mahalingam S et al: Neuroimaging in dementias. Semin Neurol. 39(2):188-99, 2019
                                              5. Sengupta P et al: Pattern of cognitive deficits in vascular dementia. Indian J Med Res. 149(4):503-7, 2019
                                              6. Smith EE et al: Harmonizing brain magnetic resonance imaging methods for vascular contributions to neurodegeneration. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 11:191-204, 2019
                                              7. Shivamurthy VK et al: Brain FDG PET and the diagnosis of dementia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(1):W76-85, 2015
                                              8. Venkat P et al: Models and mechanisms of vascular dementia. Exp Neurol. 272:97-108, 2015
                                              9. Villeneuve S et al: Imaging vascular disease and amyloid in the aging brain: implications for treatment. J Prev Alzheimers Dis. 2(1):64-70, 2015
                                              10. Yamada M: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: emerging concepts. J Stroke. 17(1):17-30, 2015
                                              11. Ihara M et al: Understanding and preventing the development of post-stroke dementia. Expert Rev Neurother. 14(9):1067-77, 2014
                                              12. Dufouil C et al: Severe cerebral white matter hyperintensities predict severe cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease history. Stroke. 40(6):2219-21, 2009
                                              13. Targosz-Gajniak M et al: Cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia - from MCI to severe Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 283(1-2):79-82, 2009
                                              14. Jellinger KA: Morphologic diagnosis of "vascular dementia" - a critical update. J Neurol Sci. 270(1-2):1-12, 2008
                                              15. O'Sullivan M et al: DTI MRI correlates with executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic leukoaraiosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(3):441-7, 2004
                                              16. Yoshikawa T et al: Heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(7):1341-7, 2003
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Vascular dementia (VaD)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Multiinfarct dementia (MID)
                                                          • Vascular cognitive disorder (VCD)
                                                          • Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)
                                                          • Subcortical ischemic VaD
                                                          • Poststroke dementia
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease or ↓ cerebral blood flow (CBF)
                                                          • VCI: Cognitive impairment caused by or associated with vascular factors
                                                          • Secondary to repeated cerebral infarctions
                                                          • Can occur alone or in association with Alzheimer disease (AD)
                                                          • 2nd most common cause of dementia next to AD

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Alber J et al: White matter hyperintensities in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): knowledge gaps and opportunities. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 5:107-17, 2019
                                                                                          2. Huang WQ et al: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) recommended as a regular magnetic resonance diagnosis for vascular dementia to identify independent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt treatment: a case study. Front Neurol. 10:262, 2019
                                                                                          3. Lim J et al: Utilization of magnetic resonance imaging by comorbidity of patients with dementia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16(23), 2019
                                                                                          4. Mahalingam S et al: Neuroimaging in dementias. Semin Neurol. 39(2):188-99, 2019
                                                                                          5. Sengupta P et al: Pattern of cognitive deficits in vascular dementia. Indian J Med Res. 149(4):503-7, 2019
                                                                                          6. Smith EE et al: Harmonizing brain magnetic resonance imaging methods for vascular contributions to neurodegeneration. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 11:191-204, 2019
                                                                                          7. Shivamurthy VK et al: Brain FDG PET and the diagnosis of dementia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(1):W76-85, 2015
                                                                                          8. Venkat P et al: Models and mechanisms of vascular dementia. Exp Neurol. 272:97-108, 2015
                                                                                          9. Villeneuve S et al: Imaging vascular disease and amyloid in the aging brain: implications for treatment. J Prev Alzheimers Dis. 2(1):64-70, 2015
                                                                                          10. Yamada M: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: emerging concepts. J Stroke. 17(1):17-30, 2015
                                                                                          11. Ihara M et al: Understanding and preventing the development of post-stroke dementia. Expert Rev Neurother. 14(9):1067-77, 2014
                                                                                          12. Dufouil C et al: Severe cerebral white matter hyperintensities predict severe cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease history. Stroke. 40(6):2219-21, 2009
                                                                                          13. Targosz-Gajniak M et al: Cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia - from MCI to severe Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 283(1-2):79-82, 2009
                                                                                          14. Jellinger KA: Morphologic diagnosis of "vascular dementia" - a critical update. J Neurol Sci. 270(1-2):1-12, 2008
                                                                                          15. O'Sullivan M et al: DTI MRI correlates with executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic leukoaraiosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(3):441-7, 2004
                                                                                          16. Yoshikawa T et al: Heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(7):1341-7, 2003