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Vascular Tumor/Leiomyosarcoma
Margarita Revzin, MD, MS, FSRU; Corinne Deurdulian, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of inferior vena cava (IVC)
          • Synonyms

            • IVC LMS
            • Primary IVC LMS
            • Retroperitoneal LMS with IVC invasion
          • Definitions

            • LMS primary malignant tumor that most often affects IVC, and it originates from parietal muscle cells of vessel
            • LMS is one of most common types of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma
            • LMS may also be of retroperitoneal origin and secondarily invade vena cava

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Smillie RP et al: Imaging evaluation of the inferior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(2):578-92, 2015
                                          2. Webb EM et al: Can CT features differentiate between inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas and primary retroperitoneal masses? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(1):205-9, 2013
                                          3. Merlo M et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: a clinicopathologic review and report of four cases. Minerva Chir. 63(3):209-21, 2008
                                          4. Ito H et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: survival after aggressive management. Ann Surg Oncol. 14(12):3534-41, 2007
                                          5. Kieffer E et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: experience in 22 cases. Ann Surg. 244(2):289-95, 2006
                                          6. Nishino M et al: Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: CT and MR imaging findings with anatomic and pathologic diagnostic clues. Radiographics. 23(1):45-57, 2003
                                          7. Hines OJ et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: prognosis and comparison with leiomyosarcoma of other anatomic sites. Cancer. 85(5):1077-83, 1999
                                          8. Mingoli A et al: International registry of inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: analysis of a world series on 218 patients. Anticancer Res. 16(5B):3201-5, 1996
                                          9. Hartman DS et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Leiomyosarcoma of the retroperitoneum and inferior vena cava: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(6):1203-20, 1992
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of inferior vena cava (IVC)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • IVC LMS
                                                    • Primary IVC LMS
                                                    • Retroperitoneal LMS with IVC invasion
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • LMS primary malignant tumor that most often affects IVC, and it originates from parietal muscle cells of vessel
                                                    • LMS is one of most common types of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma
                                                    • LMS may also be of retroperitoneal origin and secondarily invade vena cava

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Smillie RP et al: Imaging evaluation of the inferior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(2):578-92, 2015
                                                                                  2. Webb EM et al: Can CT features differentiate between inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas and primary retroperitoneal masses? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(1):205-9, 2013
                                                                                  3. Merlo M et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: a clinicopathologic review and report of four cases. Minerva Chir. 63(3):209-21, 2008
                                                                                  4. Ito H et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: survival after aggressive management. Ann Surg Oncol. 14(12):3534-41, 2007
                                                                                  5. Kieffer E et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: experience in 22 cases. Ann Surg. 244(2):289-95, 2006
                                                                                  6. Nishino M et al: Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: CT and MR imaging findings with anatomic and pathologic diagnostic clues. Radiographics. 23(1):45-57, 2003
                                                                                  7. Hines OJ et al: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: prognosis and comparison with leiomyosarcoma of other anatomic sites. Cancer. 85(5):1077-83, 1999
                                                                                  8. Mingoli A et al: International registry of inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: analysis of a world series on 218 patients. Anticancer Res. 16(5B):3201-5, 1996
                                                                                  9. Hartman DS et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Leiomyosarcoma of the retroperitoneum and inferior vena cava: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(6):1203-20, 1992