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Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation
Paula J. Woodward, MD; Karen Y. Oh, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Vein of Galen aneurysm
          • Definitions

            • Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is actually misnomer
            • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between deep choroidal arteries and embryonic median prosencephalic vein (MPV) of Markowski
              • High flow through MPV prevents formation of vein of Galen

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kwong Y et al: Fetal MRI demonstrating vein of Galen malformations in two successive pregnancies-a previously unreported occurrence. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(7):1033-5, 2015
                                      2. Deloison B et al: Hidden mortality of prenatally diagnosed vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: retrospective study and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 40(6):652-8, 2012
                                      3. Rios LT et al: Prenatal diagnosis of an aneurysm of the vein of galen by three-dimensional power and color Doppler ultrasonography. Clin Med Insights Case Rep. 5:77-80, 2012
                                      4. Gün I et al: Is prenatal volumetric evaluation of aneurysm of the vein of Galen important in the prediction of adverse fetal outcome? J Clin Ultrasound. 38(8):443-5, 2010
                                      5. Heuer GG et al: Diagnosis and treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(7):879-87, 2010
                                      6. Kalra V et al: Fetal MR diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. Pediatr Radiol. 40 Suppl 1:S155, 2010
                                      7. McSweeney N et al: Management and outcome of vein of Galen malformation. Arch Dis Child. 95(11):903-9, 2010
                                      8. Lasjaunias PL et al: The management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Neurosurgery. 2006 Nov;59(5 Suppl 3):S184-94; discussion S3-13. Review. Erratum in: Neurosurgery. 60(4 Suppl 2):393, 2007
                                      9. Vijayaraghavan SB et al: Prenatal diagnosis of thrombosed aneurysm of vein of Galen. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 27(1):81-3, 2006
                                      10. Gupta AK et al: Vein of Galen malformations: review. Neurol India. 52(1):43-53, 2004
                                      11. Has R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a vein of galen aneurysm. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(1):36-40, 2003
                                      12. Paternoster DM et al: Prenatal diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(6):408-11, 2003
                                      13. Sepulveda W et al: Vein of galen malformation: prenatal evaluation with three-dimensional power Doppler angiography. J Ultrasound Med. 22(12):1395-8, 2003
                                      14. Jones BV et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: diagnosis and treatment of 13 children with extended clinical follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(10):1717-24, 2002
                                      15. Heling KS et al: Prenatal diagnosis of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen with three-dimensional color power angiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):333-6, 2000
                                      16. Lee TH et al: Prenatal depiction of angioarchitecture of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen with three-dimensional color power angiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):337-40, 2000
                                      17. Chisholm CA et al: Aneurysm of the vein of Galen: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management. Am J Perinatol. 13(8):503-6, 1996
                                      18. Sepulveda W et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using color Doppler ultrasonography: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(4):282-6, 1995
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Vein of Galen aneurysm
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is actually misnomer
                                                • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between deep choroidal arteries and embryonic median prosencephalic vein (MPV) of Markowski
                                                  • High flow through MPV prevents formation of vein of Galen

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kwong Y et al: Fetal MRI demonstrating vein of Galen malformations in two successive pregnancies-a previously unreported occurrence. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(7):1033-5, 2015
                                                                          2. Deloison B et al: Hidden mortality of prenatally diagnosed vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: retrospective study and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 40(6):652-8, 2012
                                                                          3. Rios LT et al: Prenatal diagnosis of an aneurysm of the vein of galen by three-dimensional power and color Doppler ultrasonography. Clin Med Insights Case Rep. 5:77-80, 2012
                                                                          4. Gün I et al: Is prenatal volumetric evaluation of aneurysm of the vein of Galen important in the prediction of adverse fetal outcome? J Clin Ultrasound. 38(8):443-5, 2010
                                                                          5. Heuer GG et al: Diagnosis and treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(7):879-87, 2010
                                                                          6. Kalra V et al: Fetal MR diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. Pediatr Radiol. 40 Suppl 1:S155, 2010
                                                                          7. McSweeney N et al: Management and outcome of vein of Galen malformation. Arch Dis Child. 95(11):903-9, 2010
                                                                          8. Lasjaunias PL et al: The management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Neurosurgery. 2006 Nov;59(5 Suppl 3):S184-94; discussion S3-13. Review. Erratum in: Neurosurgery. 60(4 Suppl 2):393, 2007
                                                                          9. Vijayaraghavan SB et al: Prenatal diagnosis of thrombosed aneurysm of vein of Galen. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 27(1):81-3, 2006
                                                                          10. Gupta AK et al: Vein of Galen malformations: review. Neurol India. 52(1):43-53, 2004
                                                                          11. Has R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a vein of galen aneurysm. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(1):36-40, 2003
                                                                          12. Paternoster DM et al: Prenatal diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(6):408-11, 2003
                                                                          13. Sepulveda W et al: Vein of galen malformation: prenatal evaluation with three-dimensional power Doppler angiography. J Ultrasound Med. 22(12):1395-8, 2003
                                                                          14. Jones BV et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: diagnosis and treatment of 13 children with extended clinical follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(10):1717-24, 2002
                                                                          15. Heling KS et al: Prenatal diagnosis of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen with three-dimensional color power angiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):333-6, 2000
                                                                          16. Lee TH et al: Prenatal depiction of angioarchitecture of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen with three-dimensional color power angiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 15(4):337-40, 2000
                                                                          17. Chisholm CA et al: Aneurysm of the vein of Galen: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management. Am J Perinatol. 13(8):503-6, 1996
                                                                          18. Sepulveda W et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using color Doppler ultrasonography: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(4):282-6, 1995