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Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Vein of Galen (VofG), vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM)
            • Synonyms

              • Vein of Galen "aneurysm," Galenic varix
            • Definitions

              • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between pericallosal/deep choroidal arteries and embryonic median prosencephalic vein (MPV) of Markowski (precursor of VofG)
              • High flow through MPV prevents formation of VofG; VGAM is misnomer

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                        • Angiographic Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Poor outcome for neonates presenting with vein of Galen malformation. J Paediatr Child Health. 56(1):178, 2020
                                                  2. Giorgi L et al: Management and outcomes of neonatal arteriovenous brain malformations with cardiac failure: a 17 years' experience in a tertiary referral center. J Pediatr. 218:85-91.e2, 2020
                                                  3. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                                  4. Berenstein A et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: advances in management and endovascular treatment. Neurosurgery. 84(2):469-78, 2019
                                                  5. Duran D et al: Mutations in chromatin modifier and ephrin signaling genes in vein of Galen malformation. Neuron. 101(3):429-43.e4, 2019
                                                  6. Ganesan V: Vein of Galen malformation: beyond life or death. Dev Med Child Neurol. ePub, 2019
                                                  7. Sivasankar R et al: Endovascular Management of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations: A Retrospective Analysis over a 15-Year Period. J Vasc Interv Neurol. 10(3):23-29, 2019
                                                  8. Starke RM et al: Genetic Drivers of Vein of Galen Malformations. Neurosurgery. 85(2):E205-E206, 2019
                                                  9. Taffin H et al: Long-term outcome of vein of Galen malformation. Dev Med Child Neurol. ePub, 2019
                                                  10. Winkler O et al: Anatomy of the deep venous system in vein of Galen malformation and its changes after endovascular treatment depicted by magnetic resonance venography. J Neurointerv Surg. 11(1):84-89, 2019
                                                  11. Mortazavi MM et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations: critical analysis of the literature with proposal of a new classification system. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(3):293-306, 2013
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Vein of Galen (VofG), vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM)
                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Vein of Galen "aneurysm," Galenic varix
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between pericallosal/deep choroidal arteries and embryonic median prosencephalic vein (MPV) of Markowski (precursor of VofG)
                                                              • High flow through MPV prevents formation of VofG; VGAM is misnomer

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Poor outcome for neonates presenting with vein of Galen malformation. J Paediatr Child Health. 56(1):178, 2020
                                                                                                  2. Giorgi L et al: Management and outcomes of neonatal arteriovenous brain malformations with cardiac failure: a 17 years' experience in a tertiary referral center. J Pediatr. 218:85-91.e2, 2020
                                                                                                  3. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                                                                                  4. Berenstein A et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: advances in management and endovascular treatment. Neurosurgery. 84(2):469-78, 2019
                                                                                                  5. Duran D et al: Mutations in chromatin modifier and ephrin signaling genes in vein of Galen malformation. Neuron. 101(3):429-43.e4, 2019
                                                                                                  6. Ganesan V: Vein of Galen malformation: beyond life or death. Dev Med Child Neurol. ePub, 2019
                                                                                                  7. Sivasankar R et al: Endovascular Management of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations: A Retrospective Analysis over a 15-Year Period. J Vasc Interv Neurol. 10(3):23-29, 2019
                                                                                                  8. Starke RM et al: Genetic Drivers of Vein of Galen Malformations. Neurosurgery. 85(2):E205-E206, 2019
                                                                                                  9. Taffin H et al: Long-term outcome of vein of Galen malformation. Dev Med Child Neurol. ePub, 2019
                                                                                                  10. Winkler O et al: Anatomy of the deep venous system in vein of Galen malformation and its changes after endovascular treatment depicted by magnetic resonance venography. J Neurointerv Surg. 11(1):84-89, 2019
                                                                                                  11. Mortazavi MM et al: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations: critical analysis of the literature with proposal of a new classification system. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 12(3):293-306, 2013