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Venous Malformation, Musculoskeletal
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Venous anomaly, common venous malformation (VM)
            • Not hemangioma (benign vascular neoplasm of capillaries) or arteriovenous malformation (high-flow lesion)
              • Distinct entities with different histologies & behaviors
          • Definitions

            • Subtype of congenital slow- or low-flow vascular malformation due to error in vein formation
            • Not neoplastic

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  • Immunohistochemical Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Wassef M et al: Vascular anomalies classification: recommendations from the international society for the study of vascular anomalies. Pediatrics. 136(1):e203-14, 2015
                                                  2. Alomari AI et al: Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly: clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of a newly delineated disorder of the extremity. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(1):109-17, 2014
                                                  3. Dasgupta R et al: Venous malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):198-202, 2014
                                                  4. Spencer SA et al: Orthopedic issues in vascular anomalies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):227-32, 2014
                                                  5. Uller W et al: Overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):208-15, 2014
                                                  6. Kollipara R et al: Current classification and terminology of pediatric vascular anomalies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(5):1124-35, 2013
                                                  7. Mulliken JB et al: Mulliken and Young's Vascular Anomalies: Hemangiomas and Malformations. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
                                                  8. Jans L et al: MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes. Eur Radiol. 20(7):1792-8, 2010
                                                  9. Legiehn GM et al: A step-by-step practical approach to imaging diagnosis and interventional radiologic therapy in vascular malformations. Semin Intervent Radiol. 27(2):209-31, 2010
                                                  10. Lobo-Mueller E et al: Extremity vascular anomalies in children: introduction, classification, and imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):210-35, 2009
                                                  11. Lobo-Mueller E et al: Complex combined vascular malformations and vascular malformation syndromes affecting the extremities in children. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):255-76, 2009
                                                  12. Mulliken JB et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 69(3):412-22, 1982
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Venous anomaly, common venous malformation (VM)
                                                            • Not hemangioma (benign vascular neoplasm of capillaries) or arteriovenous malformation (high-flow lesion)
                                                              • Distinct entities with different histologies & behaviors
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Subtype of congenital slow- or low-flow vascular malformation due to error in vein formation
                                                            • Not neoplastic

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  • Immunohistochemical Features

                                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                            • Consider

                                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Wassef M et al: Vascular anomalies classification: recommendations from the international society for the study of vascular anomalies. Pediatrics. 136(1):e203-14, 2015
                                                                                                  2. Alomari AI et al: Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly: clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of a newly delineated disorder of the extremity. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(1):109-17, 2014
                                                                                                  3. Dasgupta R et al: Venous malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):198-202, 2014
                                                                                                  4. Spencer SA et al: Orthopedic issues in vascular anomalies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):227-32, 2014
                                                                                                  5. Uller W et al: Overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(4):208-15, 2014
                                                                                                  6. Kollipara R et al: Current classification and terminology of pediatric vascular anomalies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(5):1124-35, 2013
                                                                                                  7. Mulliken JB et al: Mulliken and Young's Vascular Anomalies: Hemangiomas and Malformations. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
                                                                                                  8. Jans L et al: MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes. Eur Radiol. 20(7):1792-8, 2010
                                                                                                  9. Legiehn GM et al: A step-by-step practical approach to imaging diagnosis and interventional radiologic therapy in vascular malformations. Semin Intervent Radiol. 27(2):209-31, 2010
                                                                                                  10. Lobo-Mueller E et al: Extremity vascular anomalies in children: introduction, classification, and imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):210-35, 2009
                                                                                                  11. Lobo-Mueller E et al: Complex combined vascular malformations and vascular malformation syndromes affecting the extremities in children. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):255-76, 2009
                                                                                                  12. Mulliken JB et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 69(3):412-22, 1982