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Venous Vascular Malformation
Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR; K. T. Wong, MBChB, FRCR; H. Y. Yuen, MBChB, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Venous vascular malformation (VVM)
        • Synonyms

          • Cavernous malformation, cavernous hemangioma (latter term should be avoided)
        • Definitions

          • Slow-flow, postcapillary lesion composed of endothelial-lined vascular sinusoids

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. III-1-10-13, 2011
                                          2. Ahuja AT et al: Accuracy of high-resolution sonography compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of head and neck venous vascular malformations. Clin Radiol. 58(11):869-75, 2003
                                          3. Lee BB et al: Advanced management of venous malformation with ethanol sclerotherapy: mid-term results. J Vasc Surg. 37(3): 533-8, 2003
                                          4. Lo Casto A et al: MRI findings in lingual venous malformations. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 32(5): 333-6, 2003
                                          5. Curé JK: Imaging of vascular lesions of the head and neck. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 9(4):525-49, 2001
                                          6. Marler JJ et al: Vascular anomalies: classification, diagnosis, and natural history. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 9(4):495-504, 2001
                                          7. Yang WT et al: Sonographic features of head and neck hemangiomas and vascular malformations: review of 23 patients. J Ultrasound Med. 16(1):39-44, 1997
                                          8. Baker LL et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck: MR characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(2):307-14, 1993
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Venous vascular malformation (VVM)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Cavernous malformation, cavernous hemangioma (latter term should be avoided)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Slow-flow, postcapillary lesion composed of endothelial-lined vascular sinusoids

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. III-1-10-13, 2011
                                                                                  2. Ahuja AT et al: Accuracy of high-resolution sonography compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of head and neck venous vascular malformations. Clin Radiol. 58(11):869-75, 2003
                                                                                  3. Lee BB et al: Advanced management of venous malformation with ethanol sclerotherapy: mid-term results. J Vasc Surg. 37(3): 533-8, 2003
                                                                                  4. Lo Casto A et al: MRI findings in lingual venous malformations. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 32(5): 333-6, 2003
                                                                                  5. Curé JK: Imaging of vascular lesions of the head and neck. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 9(4):525-49, 2001
                                                                                  6. Marler JJ et al: Vascular anomalies: classification, diagnosis, and natural history. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 9(4):495-504, 2001
                                                                                  7. Yang WT et al: Sonographic features of head and neck hemangiomas and vascular malformations: review of 23 patients. J Ultrasound Med. 16(1):39-44, 1997
                                                                                  8. Baker LL et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck: MR characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(2):307-14, 1993