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Ventricular Septal Defect
Michael D. Puchalski, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
            • Definitions

              • Membranous: Defect in outflow tract of left ventricle (LV), immediately below aortic valve
              • Muscular: Defect in muscular portion of septum, anywhere from apex to base
              • Outlet: Defect in outflow tract of right ventricle (RV), below pulmonary valve
              • Inlet: Located posterior and inferior to membranous septum, beneath septal leaflet of tricuspid valve

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Echocardiographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Brown KL et al: Trends in 30-day mortality rate and case mix for paediatric cardiac surgery in the UK between 2000 and 2010. Open Heart. 2(1):e000157, 2015
                                    2. Erol O et al: Natural history of prenatal isolated muscular ventricular septal defects. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 15(2):96-9, 2014
                                    3. Hoffman JI et al: Prevalence of congenital heart disease. Am Heart J. 147(3):425-39, 2004
                                    4. Paladini D et al: The 'in-plane' view of the inter-ventricular septum. A new approach to the characterization of ventricular septal defects in the fetus. Prenat Diagn. 23(13):1052-5, 2003
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Membranous: Defect in outflow tract of left ventricle (LV), immediately below aortic valve
                                                • Muscular: Defect in muscular portion of septum, anywhere from apex to base
                                                • Outlet: Defect in outflow tract of right ventricle (RV), below pulmonary valve
                                                • Inlet: Located posterior and inferior to membranous septum, beneath septal leaflet of tricuspid valve

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Brown KL et al: Trends in 30-day mortality rate and case mix for paediatric cardiac surgery in the UK between 2000 and 2010. Open Heart. 2(1):e000157, 2015
                                                                      2. Erol O et al: Natural history of prenatal isolated muscular ventricular septal defects. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 15(2):96-9, 2014
                                                                      3. Hoffman JI et al: Prevalence of congenital heart disease. Am Heart J. 147(3):425-39, 2004
                                                                      4. Paladini D et al: The 'in-plane' view of the inter-ventricular septum. A new approach to the characterization of ventricular septal defects in the fetus. Prenat Diagn. 23(13):1052-5, 2003