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Ventricular Septal Defect
Randy R. Richardson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
          • Definitions

            • Cardiac anomalies characterized by defect(s) in ventricular septum
              • Perimembranous septal defect
              • Muscular or trabecular septal defect
              • Posterior or inlet defect associated with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)
              • Outlet septal defect or supracristal VSD
            • Complex cardiac anomalies with VSD
              • Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, double-outlet right ventricle
              • Associated with other congenital lesions: Coarctation, tricuspid atresia

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Maagaard M et al: Disappearance of the shunt and lower cardiac index during exercise in small, unrepaired ventricular septal defects. Cardiol Young. 30(4):526-32, 2020
                                    2. Ojha V et al: Spectrum of changes on cardiac magnetic resonance in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: imaging according to surgical considerations. Clin Imaging. 69:102-14, 2020
                                    3. A D et al: An unusual case of double-chambered left ventricle: a case of double-chambered left ventricle communicated with right ventricle through a ventricular septal defect presented during only in diastole and a concomitant mitral valve prolapse. J Echocardiogr. 17(3):167-8, 2019
                                    4. Abdel Razek AAK et al: Imaging of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 43(6):906-11, 2019
                                    5. Jivanji SGM et al: Novel use of a 3D printed heart model to guide simultaneous percutaneous repair of severe pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. Cardiol Young. 29(4):534-7, 2019
                                    6. Mendez A et al: Virtual reality for preoperative planning in large ventricular septal defects. Eur Heart J. 40(13):1092, 2019
                                    7. Alvarez A et al: Residual shunt diagnosed with 4D flow after reparation of post-infarct ventricular septal defect. Eur Heart J. 39(42):3820, 2018
                                    8. Maagaard M et al: Biventricular morphology in adults born with a ventricular septal defect. Cardiol Young. 28(12):1379-85, 2018
                                    9. Nicolay S et al: CT imaging features of atrioventricular shunts: what the radiologist must know. Insights Imaging. 7(1):119-29, 2016
                                    10. Calkoen EE et al: Disturbed intracardiac flow organization after atrioventricular septal defect correction as assessed with 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative particle tracing. Invest Radiol. 50(12):850-7, 2015
                                    11. Chan FP et al: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in neonates with congenital cardiovascular disease. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 36(2):146-60, 2015
                                    12. Charakida M et al: Insights gained from three-dimensional imaging modalities for closure of ventricular septal defects. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 7(6):954-61, 2014
                                    13. Rajiah P et al: Computed tomography of septal defects. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(4):231-45, 2010
                                    14. Blasco PB et al: Spontaneous improvement of a haemodynamically significant ventricular septal defect produced by blunt chest trauma in a child. Cardiol Young. 19(1):109-10, 2009
                                    15. Debl K et al: Quantification of left-to-right shunting in adult congenital heart disease: phase-contrast cine MRI compared with invasive oximetry. Br J Radiol. 82(977):386-91, 2009
                                    16. Love BA et al: Membranous septal aneurysm causing right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Clin Cardiol. 32(12):E87, 2009
                                    17. Manganaro L et al: Assessment of congenital heart disease (CHD): is there a role for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Eur J Radiol. 72(1):172-80, 2009
                                    18. Ratnayaka K et al: Antegrade percutaneous closure of membranous ventricular septal defect using X-ray fused with magnetic resonance imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2(3):224-30, 2009
                                    19. Miyake T et al: Spontaneous closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect after school age. Pediatr Int. 50(5):632-5, 2008
                                    20. Varaprasathan GA et al: Quantification of flow dynamics in congenital heart disease: applications of velocity-encoded cine MR imaging. Radiographics. 22(4):895-905; discussion 905-6, 2002
                                    21. McDaniel NL et al: Ventricular septal defects. In Allen HD et al: Moss & Adams' Heart Disease in Infants, Children, & Adolescents, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 636-51, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Cardiac anomalies characterized by defect(s) in ventricular septum
                                                • Perimembranous septal defect
                                                • Muscular or trabecular septal defect
                                                • Posterior or inlet defect associated with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)
                                                • Outlet septal defect or supracristal VSD
                                              • Complex cardiac anomalies with VSD
                                                • Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, double-outlet right ventricle
                                                • Associated with other congenital lesions: Coarctation, tricuspid atresia

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                      • Angiographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Maagaard M et al: Disappearance of the shunt and lower cardiac index during exercise in small, unrepaired ventricular septal defects. Cardiol Young. 30(4):526-32, 2020
                                                                      2. Ojha V et al: Spectrum of changes on cardiac magnetic resonance in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: imaging according to surgical considerations. Clin Imaging. 69:102-14, 2020
                                                                      3. A D et al: An unusual case of double-chambered left ventricle: a case of double-chambered left ventricle communicated with right ventricle through a ventricular septal defect presented during only in diastole and a concomitant mitral valve prolapse. J Echocardiogr. 17(3):167-8, 2019
                                                                      4. Abdel Razek AAK et al: Imaging of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 43(6):906-11, 2019
                                                                      5. Jivanji SGM et al: Novel use of a 3D printed heart model to guide simultaneous percutaneous repair of severe pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. Cardiol Young. 29(4):534-7, 2019
                                                                      6. Mendez A et al: Virtual reality for preoperative planning in large ventricular septal defects. Eur Heart J. 40(13):1092, 2019
                                                                      7. Alvarez A et al: Residual shunt diagnosed with 4D flow after reparation of post-infarct ventricular septal defect. Eur Heart J. 39(42):3820, 2018
                                                                      8. Maagaard M et al: Biventricular morphology in adults born with a ventricular septal defect. Cardiol Young. 28(12):1379-85, 2018
                                                                      9. Nicolay S et al: CT imaging features of atrioventricular shunts: what the radiologist must know. Insights Imaging. 7(1):119-29, 2016
                                                                      10. Calkoen EE et al: Disturbed intracardiac flow organization after atrioventricular septal defect correction as assessed with 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative particle tracing. Invest Radiol. 50(12):850-7, 2015
                                                                      11. Chan FP et al: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in neonates with congenital cardiovascular disease. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 36(2):146-60, 2015
                                                                      12. Charakida M et al: Insights gained from three-dimensional imaging modalities for closure of ventricular septal defects. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 7(6):954-61, 2014
                                                                      13. Rajiah P et al: Computed tomography of septal defects. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(4):231-45, 2010
                                                                      14. Blasco PB et al: Spontaneous improvement of a haemodynamically significant ventricular septal defect produced by blunt chest trauma in a child. Cardiol Young. 19(1):109-10, 2009
                                                                      15. Debl K et al: Quantification of left-to-right shunting in adult congenital heart disease: phase-contrast cine MRI compared with invasive oximetry. Br J Radiol. 82(977):386-91, 2009
                                                                      16. Love BA et al: Membranous septal aneurysm causing right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Clin Cardiol. 32(12):E87, 2009
                                                                      17. Manganaro L et al: Assessment of congenital heart disease (CHD): is there a role for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Eur J Radiol. 72(1):172-80, 2009
                                                                      18. Ratnayaka K et al: Antegrade percutaneous closure of membranous ventricular septal defect using X-ray fused with magnetic resonance imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2(3):224-30, 2009
                                                                      19. Miyake T et al: Spontaneous closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect after school age. Pediatr Int. 50(5):632-5, 2008
                                                                      20. Varaprasathan GA et al: Quantification of flow dynamics in congenital heart disease: applications of velocity-encoded cine MR imaging. Radiographics. 22(4):895-905; discussion 905-6, 2002
                                                                      21. McDaniel NL et al: Ventricular septal defects. In Allen HD et al: Moss & Adams' Heart Disease in Infants, Children, & Adolescents, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 636-51, 2001