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Ventricular Septal Rupture
John P. Lichtenberger, III, MD; Stephan Achenbach, MD, FESC, FACC, FSCCT
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Ventricular septal rupture (VSR)
          • Synonyms

            • Postinfarct ventricular septal defect (VSD)
          • Definitions

            • Abnormal communication between right and left ventricles
              • Generally following acute myocardial infarction

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Durko AP et al: Recognition, assessment and management of the mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 104(14):1216-23, 2018
                                    2. Camm CF et al: Ventricular rupture following myocardial infarction. J Invasive Cardiol. 29(5):E60, 2017
                                    3. Hamilton MCK et al: The in vivo morphology of post-infarct ventricular septal defect and the implications for closure. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 10(12):1233-43, 2017
                                    4. Calvert PA et al: Percutaneous closure of postinfarction ventricular septal defect: in-hospital outcomes and long-term follow-up of UK experience. Circulation. 129(23):2395-402, 2014
                                    5. Isoda S et al: Surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal defects-2013 update. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 19(2):95-102, 2013
                                    6. Tada N et al: Percutaneous closure of post-infarction ventricular septal defect using an Amplatzer septal occluder. Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 28(2):216-21, 2013
                                    7. Vargas-Barrón J et al: Risk factors, echocardiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with acute ventricular septal rupture during myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 95(10):1153-8, 2005
                                    8. Birnbaum Y et al: Ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 347(18):1426-32, 2002
                                    9. Crenshaw BS et al: Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO-I (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries) Trial Investigators. Circulation. 101(1):27-32, 2000
                                    10. Menon V et al: Outcome and profile of ventricular septal rupture with cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries in cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol. 36(3 Suppl A):1110-6, 2000
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Ventricular septal rupture (VSR)
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Postinfarct ventricular septal defect (VSD)
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Abnormal communication between right and left ventricles
                                                • Generally following acute myocardial infarction

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                      • Angiographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Durko AP et al: Recognition, assessment and management of the mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 104(14):1216-23, 2018
                                                                      2. Camm CF et al: Ventricular rupture following myocardial infarction. J Invasive Cardiol. 29(5):E60, 2017
                                                                      3. Hamilton MCK et al: The in vivo morphology of post-infarct ventricular septal defect and the implications for closure. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 10(12):1233-43, 2017
                                                                      4. Calvert PA et al: Percutaneous closure of postinfarction ventricular septal defect: in-hospital outcomes and long-term follow-up of UK experience. Circulation. 129(23):2395-402, 2014
                                                                      5. Isoda S et al: Surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal defects-2013 update. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 19(2):95-102, 2013
                                                                      6. Tada N et al: Percutaneous closure of post-infarction ventricular septal defect using an Amplatzer septal occluder. Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 28(2):216-21, 2013
                                                                      7. Vargas-Barrón J et al: Risk factors, echocardiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with acute ventricular septal rupture during myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 95(10):1153-8, 2005
                                                                      8. Birnbaum Y et al: Ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 347(18):1426-32, 2002
                                                                      9. Crenshaw BS et al: Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO-I (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries) Trial Investigators. Circulation. 101(1):27-32, 2000
                                                                      10. Menon V et al: Outcome and profile of ventricular septal rupture with cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries in cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol. 36(3 Suppl A):1110-6, 2000