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Ventriculitis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Karen L. Salzman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Ependymitis, ventricular abscess, pyocephalus
          • Definitions

            • Ventricular ependyma infection related to meningitis, ruptured brain abscess, or ventricular catheter

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Hazany S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious meningitis and ventriculitis in adults. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):315-25, 2014
                                    2. Lummel N et al: Spectrum and Prevalence of Pathological Intracranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Acute Bacterial Meningitis. Clin Neuroradiol. ePub, 2014
                                    3. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                    4. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 1: techniques and bacterial infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e42-51, 2012
                                    5. Gelfand MS et al: Successful treatment with doripenem and tobramycin of ventriculitis due to imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 63(6):1297-9, 2009
                                    6. Beer R et al: Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 255(11):1617-24, 2008
                                    7. Cota GF et al: Ventriculitis: a rare case of primary cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patient and literature review. Braz J Infect Dis. 12(1):101-4, 2008
                                    8. Hong JT et al: Significance of diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the evaluation of pyogenic ventriculitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(2):137-44, 2008
                                    9. Ito H et al: Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis presenting with hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Intern Med. 47(4):323-4, 2008
                                    10. Kastrup O et al: Neuroimaging of infections of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol. 28(4):511-22, 2008
                                    11. Mongkolrattanothai K et al: Ventriculitis and choroid plexitis caused by multidrug-resistant Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 27(7):666-8, 2008
                                    12. Yikilmaz A et al: Sonographic findings in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants. Pediatr Radiol. 38(2):129-37, 2008
                                    13. Ziai WC et al: Update in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system infections. Neurol Clin. 26(2):427-68, viii, 2008
                                    14. Kiyan S et al: A rare diagnosis in ED: cerebral pyogenic ventriculitis due to infective endocarditis. Am J Emerg Med. 25(1):120-2, 2007
                                    15. Vajramani GV et al: Primary ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Br J Neurosurg. 21(3):293-6, 2007
                                    16. Fujikawa A et al: Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(4):1048-53, 2006
                                    17. Ziai WC et al: Advances in the management of central nervous system infections in the ICU. Crit Care Clin. 22(4):661-94; abstract viii-ix, 2006
                                    18. Coen M et al: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics for rapid diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis. Clin Infect Dis. 41(11):1582-90, 2005
                                    19. Ferreira NP et al: Imaging aspects of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 16(2):145-54, 2005
                                    20. Korinek AM et al: Prevention of external ventricular drain--related ventriculitis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 147(1):39-45; discussion 45-6, 2005
                                    21. Vajramani GV et al: Persistent and intractable ventriculitis due to retained ventricular catheters. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):496-501, 2005
                                    22. Pezzullo JA et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pyogenic ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):71-5, 2003
                                    23. Lyke KE et al: Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 33(12):2028-33, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Ependymitis, ventricular abscess, pyocephalus
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Ventricular ependyma infection related to meningitis, ruptured brain abscess, or ventricular catheter

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Hazany S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious meningitis and ventriculitis in adults. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):315-25, 2014
                                                                      2. Lummel N et al: Spectrum and Prevalence of Pathological Intracranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Acute Bacterial Meningitis. Clin Neuroradiol. ePub, 2014
                                                                      3. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                                                      4. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 1: techniques and bacterial infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e42-51, 2012
                                                                      5. Gelfand MS et al: Successful treatment with doripenem and tobramycin of ventriculitis due to imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 63(6):1297-9, 2009
                                                                      6. Beer R et al: Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 255(11):1617-24, 2008
                                                                      7. Cota GF et al: Ventriculitis: a rare case of primary cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patient and literature review. Braz J Infect Dis. 12(1):101-4, 2008
                                                                      8. Hong JT et al: Significance of diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the evaluation of pyogenic ventriculitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(2):137-44, 2008
                                                                      9. Ito H et al: Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis presenting with hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Intern Med. 47(4):323-4, 2008
                                                                      10. Kastrup O et al: Neuroimaging of infections of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol. 28(4):511-22, 2008
                                                                      11. Mongkolrattanothai K et al: Ventriculitis and choroid plexitis caused by multidrug-resistant Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 27(7):666-8, 2008
                                                                      12. Yikilmaz A et al: Sonographic findings in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants. Pediatr Radiol. 38(2):129-37, 2008
                                                                      13. Ziai WC et al: Update in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system infections. Neurol Clin. 26(2):427-68, viii, 2008
                                                                      14. Kiyan S et al: A rare diagnosis in ED: cerebral pyogenic ventriculitis due to infective endocarditis. Am J Emerg Med. 25(1):120-2, 2007
                                                                      15. Vajramani GV et al: Primary ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Br J Neurosurg. 21(3):293-6, 2007
                                                                      16. Fujikawa A et al: Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(4):1048-53, 2006
                                                                      17. Ziai WC et al: Advances in the management of central nervous system infections in the ICU. Crit Care Clin. 22(4):661-94; abstract viii-ix, 2006
                                                                      18. Coen M et al: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics for rapid diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis. Clin Infect Dis. 41(11):1582-90, 2005
                                                                      19. Ferreira NP et al: Imaging aspects of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 16(2):145-54, 2005
                                                                      20. Korinek AM et al: Prevention of external ventricular drain--related ventriculitis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 147(1):39-45; discussion 45-6, 2005
                                                                      21. Vajramani GV et al: Persistent and intractable ventriculitis due to retained ventricular catheters. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):496-501, 2005
                                                                      22. Pezzullo JA et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pyogenic ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):71-5, 2003
                                                                      23. Lyke KE et al: Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 33(12):2028-33, 2001