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Ventriculitis
Luke L. Linscott, MD; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Karen L. Salzman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Ependymitis, ventricular abscess, pyocephalus
            • Definitions

              • Ventricular ependyma infection related to meningitis, ruptured brain abscess, or ventricular catheter

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Lamb GS et al: Central nervous system infections caused by mycobacterium abscessus: ventricular shunt infection in two pediatric patients and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 38(5):e99-e04, 2019
                                      2. Lewin JJ 3rd et al: Current practices of intraventricular antibiotic therapy in the treatment of meningitis and ventriculitis: results from a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Neurocrit Care. 30(3):609-16, 2018
                                      3. Tunkel AR et al: 2017 Infectious diseases society of America's clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. ePub, 2017
                                      4. Srihawan C et al: Clinical characteristics and predictors of adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients With healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 3(2):ofw077, 2016
                                      5. Hazany S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious meningitis and ventriculitis in adults. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):315-25, 2014
                                      6. Lummel N et al: Spectrum and prevalence of pathological intracranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Neuroradiol. 26(2):159-67, 2014
                                      7. Singh P et al: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of tubercular ventriculitis: an under-recognized complication of tubercular meningitis. J Neurol Sci. 342(1-2):137-40, 2014
                                      8. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                      9. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 1: techniques and bacterial infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e42-51, 2012
                                      10. Beer R et al: Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 255(11):1617-24, 2008
                                      11. Hong JT et al: Significance of diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the evaluation of pyogenic ventriculitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(2):137-44, 2008
                                      12. Ito H et al: Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis presenting with hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Intern Med. 47(4):323-4, 2008
                                      13. Kastrup O et al: Neuroimaging of infections of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol. 28(4):511-22, 2008
                                      14. Yikilmaz A et al: Sonographic findings in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants. Pediatr Radiol. 38(2):129-37, 2008
                                      15. Fujikawa A et al: Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(4):1048-53, 2006
                                      16. Coen M et al: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics for rapid diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis. Clin Infect Dis. 41(11):1582-90, 2005
                                      17. Ferreira NP et al: Imaging aspects of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 16(2):145-54, 2005
                                      18. Vajramani GV et al: Persistent and intractable ventriculitis due to retained ventricular catheters. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):496-501, 2005
                                      19. Pezzullo JA et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pyogenic ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):71-5, 2003
                                      20. Lyke KE et al: Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 33(12):2028-33, 2001
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Ependymitis, ventricular abscess, pyocephalus
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Ventricular ependyma infection related to meningitis, ruptured brain abscess, or ventricular catheter

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Lamb GS et al: Central nervous system infections caused by mycobacterium abscessus: ventricular shunt infection in two pediatric patients and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 38(5):e99-e04, 2019
                                                                          2. Lewin JJ 3rd et al: Current practices of intraventricular antibiotic therapy in the treatment of meningitis and ventriculitis: results from a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Neurocrit Care. 30(3):609-16, 2018
                                                                          3. Tunkel AR et al: 2017 Infectious diseases society of America's clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. ePub, 2017
                                                                          4. Srihawan C et al: Clinical characteristics and predictors of adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients With healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 3(2):ofw077, 2016
                                                                          5. Hazany S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious meningitis and ventriculitis in adults. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):315-25, 2014
                                                                          6. Lummel N et al: Spectrum and prevalence of pathological intracranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Neuroradiol. 26(2):159-67, 2014
                                                                          7. Singh P et al: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of tubercular ventriculitis: an under-recognized complication of tubercular meningitis. J Neurol Sci. 342(1-2):137-40, 2014
                                                                          8. Mohan S et al: Imaging of meningitis and ventriculitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-83, 2012
                                                                          9. Nickerson JP et al: Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 1: techniques and bacterial infections. J Neuroimaging. 22(2):e42-51, 2012
                                                                          10. Beer R et al: Nosocomial ventriculitis and meningitis in neurocritical care patients. J Neurol. 255(11):1617-24, 2008
                                                                          11. Hong JT et al: Significance of diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the evaluation of pyogenic ventriculitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(2):137-44, 2008
                                                                          12. Ito H et al: Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis presenting with hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Intern Med. 47(4):323-4, 2008
                                                                          13. Kastrup O et al: Neuroimaging of infections of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol. 28(4):511-22, 2008
                                                                          14. Yikilmaz A et al: Sonographic findings in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants. Pediatr Radiol. 38(2):129-37, 2008
                                                                          15. Fujikawa A et al: Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(4):1048-53, 2006
                                                                          16. Coen M et al: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics for rapid diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis. Clin Infect Dis. 41(11):1582-90, 2005
                                                                          17. Ferreira NP et al: Imaging aspects of pyogenic infections of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 16(2):145-54, 2005
                                                                          18. Vajramani GV et al: Persistent and intractable ventriculitis due to retained ventricular catheters. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):496-501, 2005
                                                                          19. Pezzullo JA et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pyogenic ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):71-5, 2003
                                                                          20. Lyke KE et al: Ventriculitis complicating use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 33(12):2028-33, 2001