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Vertebral Stenosis/Occlusion
Stella Sin Yee Ho, RDMS, RVT, PhD; Simon S. M. Ho, MBBS, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Vertebral artery (VA) divided into 4 segments
            • V1: Preinterforaminal segment (origin to point before entering transverse foramen of 6th cervical vertebra (C6)
            • V2: Interforaminal segment between C6 and C2
            • V3: Atlas loop segment (C2 to dura)
            • V4: Intracranial segment [dura to basilar artery (BA)]
        • Definitions

          • Luminal narrowing or blockage due to plaque formation, thrombosis, or dissection

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Angiographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Katsanos AH et al: Is vertebral artery hypoplasia a predisposing factor for posterior circulation cerebral ischemic events? A comprehensive review. Eur Neurol. 70(1-2):78-83, 2013
                                    2. Lau HY et al: Effectiveness of mastoid process percussion for identification of the vertebral artery ostium on Doppler studies. J Ultrasound Med. 32(7):1137-43, 2013
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Vertebral artery (VA) divided into 4 segments
                                              • V1: Preinterforaminal segment (origin to point before entering transverse foramen of 6th cervical vertebra (C6)
                                              • V2: Interforaminal segment between C6 and C2
                                              • V3: Atlas loop segment (C2 to dura)
                                              • V4: Intracranial segment [dura to basilar artery (BA)]
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Luminal narrowing or blockage due to plaque formation, thrombosis, or dissection

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Katsanos AH et al: Is vertebral artery hypoplasia a predisposing factor for posterior circulation cerebral ischemic events? A comprehensive review. Eur Neurol. 70(1-2):78-83, 2013
                                                                      2. Lau HY et al: Effectiveness of mastoid process percussion for identification of the vertebral artery ostium on Doppler studies. J Ultrasound Med. 32(7):1137-43, 2013