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Vesicoureteral Reflux
Amie M. McPherson, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR)
          • Definitions

            • Retrograde flow of urine from bladder into ureter &/or renal pelvis

          IMAGING

          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. American College of Radiology. ACR–SPR–SNM Practice Guideline for the Performance of Adult and Pediatric Radionuclide Cystography. 2010
                                      2. Boubaker A et al: Radionuclide investigations of the urinary tract in the era of multimodality imaging. J Nucl Med. 47(11):1819-36, 2006
                                      3. Piepsz A et al: Pediatric applications of renal nuclear medicine. Semin Nucl Med. 36(1):16-35, 2006
                                      4. Unver T et al: Comparison of direct radionuclide cystography and voiding cystourethrography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Int. 48(3):287-91, 2006
                                      5. Fettich J et al: Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):B39-44, 2003
                                      6. Lapner PC et al: Children in crashes: mechanisms of injury and restraint systems. Can J Surg. 44(6):445-9, 2001
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Retrograde flow of urine from bladder into ureter &/or renal pelvis

                                              IMAGING

                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. American College of Radiology. ACR–SPR–SNM Practice Guideline for the Performance of Adult and Pediatric Radionuclide Cystography. 2010
                                                                          2. Boubaker A et al: Radionuclide investigations of the urinary tract in the era of multimodality imaging. J Nucl Med. 47(11):1819-36, 2006
                                                                          3. Piepsz A et al: Pediatric applications of renal nuclear medicine. Semin Nucl Med. 36(1):16-35, 2006
                                                                          4. Unver T et al: Comparison of direct radionuclide cystography and voiding cystourethrography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Int. 48(3):287-91, 2006
                                                                          5. Fettich J et al: Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):B39-44, 2003
                                                                          6. Lapner PC et al: Children in crashes: mechanisms of injury and restraint systems. Can J Surg. 44(6):445-9, 2001