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Viral Hepatitis
Atif Zaheer, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
              • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
              • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
              • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
            • Definitions

              • Acute hepatitis: Hepatocyte necrosis and inflammation resulting from acute viral infection

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Thomaides-Brears HB et al: Multiparametric MR mapping in clinical decision-making for diffuse liver disease. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(11):3507-22, 2020
                                          2. Tosun M et al: Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging for diagnosing and staging the liver fibrosis and inflammation. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(1):15-23, 2020
                                          3. Bradley C et al: Short-term changes observed in multiparametric liver MRI following therapy with direct-acting antivirals in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Eur Radiol. 29(6):3100-7, 2019
                                          4. Dong J et al: Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of inflammatory activity from chronic viral Hepatitis B. Pak J Med Sci. 35(6):1565-9, 2019
                                          5. Lanini S et al: Viral hepatitis: etiology, epidemiology, transmission, diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 33(4):1045-62, 2019
                                          6. Bradley CR et al: Multi-organ assessment of compensated cirrhosis patients using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. J Hepatol. 69(5):1015-24, 2018
                                          7. Chronic viral hepatitis. Treatment progress, hopes for cures. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 32(3):4-5, 2014
                                          8. Chundru S et al: MRI of diffuse liver disease: characteristics of acute and chronic diseases. Diagn Interv Radiol. 20(3):200-8, 2014
                                          9. Ferraioli G et al: Shear wave elastography for evaluation of liver fibrosis. J Ultrasound Med. 33(2):197-203, 2014
                                          10. Lee JE et al: Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection using magnetic resonance elastography. Korean J Radiol. 15(2):210-7, 2014
                                          11. Muir AJ: The rapid evolution of treatment strategies for hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 109(5):628-35; quiz 636, 2014
                                          12. Runge JH et al: Comparison of interobserver agreement of magnetic resonance elastography with histopathological staging of liver fibrosis. Abdom Imaging. 39(2):283-90, 2014
                                          13. Casado JL et al: Regression of liver fibrosis is progressive after sustained virological response to HCV therapy in patients with hepatitis C and HIV coinfection. J Viral Hepat. 20(12):829-37, 2013
                                          14. van Meer S et al: Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease: evidence and controversies. World J Gastroenterol. 19(40):6744-56, 2013
                                          15. Machado MV et al: Hepatic steatosis in hepatitis B virus infected patients: meta-analysis of risk factors and comparison with hepatitis C infected patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 26(9):1361-7, 2011
                                          16. Shao YY et al: Impact of baseline hepatitis B viral DNA levels on survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 31(11):4007-11, 2011
                                          17. Jacobsen KH et al: Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Vaccine. 28(41):6653-7, 2010
                                          18. Bahl M et al: Liver steatosis: investigation of opposed-phase T1-weighted liver MR signal intensity loss and visceral fat measurement as biomarkers. Radiology. 249(1):160-6, 2008
                                          19. Hamer OW et al: Imaging features of perivascular fatty infiltration of the liver: initial observations. Radiology. 237(1):159-69, 2005
                                          20. Mortele KJ et al: Imaging of diffuse liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 21(2):195-212, 2001
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
                                                      • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
                                                      • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
                                                      • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Acute hepatitis: Hepatocyte necrosis and inflammation resulting from acute viral infection

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Thomaides-Brears HB et al: Multiparametric MR mapping in clinical decision-making for diffuse liver disease. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(11):3507-22, 2020
                                                                                  2. Tosun M et al: Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging for diagnosing and staging the liver fibrosis and inflammation. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(1):15-23, 2020
                                                                                  3. Bradley C et al: Short-term changes observed in multiparametric liver MRI following therapy with direct-acting antivirals in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Eur Radiol. 29(6):3100-7, 2019
                                                                                  4. Dong J et al: Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of inflammatory activity from chronic viral Hepatitis B. Pak J Med Sci. 35(6):1565-9, 2019
                                                                                  5. Lanini S et al: Viral hepatitis: etiology, epidemiology, transmission, diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 33(4):1045-62, 2019
                                                                                  6. Bradley CR et al: Multi-organ assessment of compensated cirrhosis patients using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. J Hepatol. 69(5):1015-24, 2018
                                                                                  7. Chronic viral hepatitis. Treatment progress, hopes for cures. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 32(3):4-5, 2014
                                                                                  8. Chundru S et al: MRI of diffuse liver disease: characteristics of acute and chronic diseases. Diagn Interv Radiol. 20(3):200-8, 2014
                                                                                  9. Ferraioli G et al: Shear wave elastography for evaluation of liver fibrosis. J Ultrasound Med. 33(2):197-203, 2014
                                                                                  10. Lee JE et al: Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection using magnetic resonance elastography. Korean J Radiol. 15(2):210-7, 2014
                                                                                  11. Muir AJ: The rapid evolution of treatment strategies for hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 109(5):628-35; quiz 636, 2014
                                                                                  12. Runge JH et al: Comparison of interobserver agreement of magnetic resonance elastography with histopathological staging of liver fibrosis. Abdom Imaging. 39(2):283-90, 2014
                                                                                  13. Casado JL et al: Regression of liver fibrosis is progressive after sustained virological response to HCV therapy in patients with hepatitis C and HIV coinfection. J Viral Hepat. 20(12):829-37, 2013
                                                                                  14. van Meer S et al: Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease: evidence and controversies. World J Gastroenterol. 19(40):6744-56, 2013
                                                                                  15. Machado MV et al: Hepatic steatosis in hepatitis B virus infected patients: meta-analysis of risk factors and comparison with hepatitis C infected patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 26(9):1361-7, 2011
                                                                                  16. Shao YY et al: Impact of baseline hepatitis B viral DNA levels on survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 31(11):4007-11, 2011
                                                                                  17. Jacobsen KH et al: Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Vaccine. 28(41):6653-7, 2010
                                                                                  18. Bahl M et al: Liver steatosis: investigation of opposed-phase T1-weighted liver MR signal intensity loss and visceral fat measurement as biomarkers. Radiology. 249(1):160-6, 2008
                                                                                  19. Hamer OW et al: Imaging features of perivascular fatty infiltration of the liver: initial observations. Radiology. 237(1):159-69, 2005
                                                                                  20. Mortele KJ et al: Imaging of diffuse liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 21(2):195-212, 2001