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Vocal Cord Paralysis
Troy A. Hutchins, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Vocal cord paralysis (VCP), true vocal cord paralysis (TVCP), recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP)
              • Definitions

                • Immobilization of true vocal cord by ipsilateral vagus (CNX) or recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Imaging Pitfalls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Carneiro-Pla D et al: Impact of vocal cord ultrasonography on endocrine surgery practices. Surgery. 159(1): 58-63, 2016
                                          2. Chen DW et al: Routine computed tomography in the evaluation of vocal fold movement impairment without an apparent cause. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(2):308-13, 2015
                                          3. Siu J et al: A comparison of outcomes in interventions for unilateral vocal fold paralysis: A systematic review. Laryngoscope. ePub, 2015
                                          4. Cernea CR et al: Recurrent laryngeal nerve: a plexus rather than a nerve? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(11):1098-102, 2009
                                          5. Wear VV et al: Evaluating "eee" phonation in multidetector CT of the neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(6):1102-6, 2009
                                          6. Kumar VA et al: CT assessment of vocal cord medialization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(8):1643-6, 2006
                                          7. Ardito G et al: Revisited anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Am J Surg. 187(2):249-53, 2004
                                          8. Myssiorek D: Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: anatomy and etiology. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 37(1):25-44, 2004
                                          9. Richardson BE et al: Clinical evaluation of vocal fold paralysis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 37(1):45-58, 2004
                                          10. Torkian BA et al: Granulomatous inflammation and nerve necrosis in a case of apparent idiopathic vocal fold paralysis: report of a case. Laryngoscope. 114(7):1271-1275, 2004
                                          11. Baron EM et al: Dysphagia, hoarseness, and unilateral true vocal fold motion impairment following anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 112(11):921-6, 2003
                                          12. Chin SC et al: Using CT to localize side and level of vocal cord paralysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(4):1165-70, 2003
                                          13. Schneider B et al: Concept for diagnosis and therapy of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis following thoracic surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 51(6):327-31, 2003
                                          14. Tilles SA: Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 3(6):467-72, 2003
                                          15. Wessels T et al: Vocal cord palsy resulting from spontaneous carotid dissection. Laryngoscope. 113(3):537-40, 2003
                                          16. Yeretsian RA et al: Teflon-induced granuloma: a false-positive finding with PET resolved with combined PET and CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1164-6, 2003
                                          17. Zeitels SM et al: Laryngology and phonosurgery. N Engl J Med. 349(9):882-92, 2003
                                          18. Hartl DM et al: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: current knowledge and treatment] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 117(2):60-84, 2000
                                          19. Hughes CA et al: Unilateral true vocal fold paralysis: cause of right-sided lesions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 122(5):678-80, 2000
                                          20. Romo LV et al: Atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle as an indicator of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(3):467-71, 1999
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Vocal cord paralysis (VCP), true vocal cord paralysis (TVCP), recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Immobilization of true vocal cord by ipsilateral vagus (CNX) or recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Imaging Pitfalls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Carneiro-Pla D et al: Impact of vocal cord ultrasonography on endocrine surgery practices. Surgery. 159(1): 58-63, 2016
                                                                                  2. Chen DW et al: Routine computed tomography in the evaluation of vocal fold movement impairment without an apparent cause. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(2):308-13, 2015
                                                                                  3. Siu J et al: A comparison of outcomes in interventions for unilateral vocal fold paralysis: A systematic review. Laryngoscope. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  4. Cernea CR et al: Recurrent laryngeal nerve: a plexus rather than a nerve? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(11):1098-102, 2009
                                                                                  5. Wear VV et al: Evaluating "eee" phonation in multidetector CT of the neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(6):1102-6, 2009
                                                                                  6. Kumar VA et al: CT assessment of vocal cord medialization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(8):1643-6, 2006
                                                                                  7. Ardito G et al: Revisited anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Am J Surg. 187(2):249-53, 2004
                                                                                  8. Myssiorek D: Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: anatomy and etiology. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 37(1):25-44, 2004
                                                                                  9. Richardson BE et al: Clinical evaluation of vocal fold paralysis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 37(1):45-58, 2004
                                                                                  10. Torkian BA et al: Granulomatous inflammation and nerve necrosis in a case of apparent idiopathic vocal fold paralysis: report of a case. Laryngoscope. 114(7):1271-1275, 2004
                                                                                  11. Baron EM et al: Dysphagia, hoarseness, and unilateral true vocal fold motion impairment following anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 112(11):921-6, 2003
                                                                                  12. Chin SC et al: Using CT to localize side and level of vocal cord paralysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(4):1165-70, 2003
                                                                                  13. Schneider B et al: Concept for diagnosis and therapy of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis following thoracic surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 51(6):327-31, 2003
                                                                                  14. Tilles SA: Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 3(6):467-72, 2003
                                                                                  15. Wessels T et al: Vocal cord palsy resulting from spontaneous carotid dissection. Laryngoscope. 113(3):537-40, 2003
                                                                                  16. Yeretsian RA et al: Teflon-induced granuloma: a false-positive finding with PET resolved with combined PET and CT. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1164-6, 2003
                                                                                  17. Zeitels SM et al: Laryngology and phonosurgery. N Engl J Med. 349(9):882-92, 2003
                                                                                  18. Hartl DM et al: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: current knowledge and treatment] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 117(2):60-84, 2000
                                                                                  19. Hughes CA et al: Unilateral true vocal fold paralysis: cause of right-sided lesions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 122(5):678-80, 2000
                                                                                  20. Romo LV et al: Atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle as an indicator of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(3):467-71, 1999