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Vocal Cord Paralysis
Evelyn W. K. Tang, MBBS, FRCRYolanda Y. P. Lee, MBChB, FRCRSimon S. M. Wong, MBBS, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Vocal cord paralysis (VCP), true vocal cord paralysis (TVCP), recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP)
            • Definitions

              • Immobilization of true vocal cord (VC) by ipsilateral vagus (CNX) or recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Imaging Pitfalls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Goto T et al: Unilateral vocal fold adductor paralysis after tracheal intubation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 45(1):178-81, 2018
                                    2. İrkörücü O: Approach to the assessment of vocal cord movement by ultrasonography. World J Surg. 42(4):1214, 2018
                                    3. Kwon M et al: Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis in older patients: characteristics in the disease course and implication of computed tomography for evaluation of etiology. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 127(11):823-8, 2018
                                    4. Klee K et al: Unilateral recurrent nerve palsy and cardiovascular disease - Ortner's syndrome. J Cardiol Cases. 15(3):88-90, 2017
                                    5. Lynch J et al: Management of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after thyroid surgery: a review. Head Neck. 39(7):1470-8, 2017
                                    6. Vachha B et al: Losing your voice: etiologies and imaging features of vocal fold paralysis. J Clin Imaging Sci. 3:15, 2013
                                    7. Heikkinen J et al: Cardiovocal syndrome (Ortner's syndrome) associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and giant pulmonary artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Med. 2012:230736, 2012
                                    8. Kwong Y et al: Radiology of vocal cord palsy. Clin Radiol. 67(11):1108-14, 2012
                                    9. Paquette CM et al: Unilateral vocal cord paralysis: a review of CT findings, mediastinal causes, and the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Radiographics. 32(3):721-40, 2012
                                    10. Song SW et al: CT evaluation of vocal cord paralysis due to thoracic diseases: a 10-year retrospective study. Yonsei Med J. 52(5):831-7, 2011
                                    11. Garcia MM et al: Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis. Radiol Bras. 42(5):321-326, 2009
                                    12. Kumar VA et al: CT assessment of vocal cord medialization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(8):1643-6, 2006
                                    13. Chin SC et al: Using CT to localize side and level of vocal cord paralysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(4):1165-70, 2003
                                    14. Aydin K et al: Case report: bilateral vocal cord paralysis caused by cervical spinal osteophytes. Br J Radiol. 75(900):990-33, 2002
                                    15. Miles KA: Ultrasound demonstration of vocal cord movements. Br J Radiol. 62(741):871-2, 1989
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Vocal cord paralysis (VCP), true vocal cord paralysis (TVCP), recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Immobilization of true vocal cord (VC) by ipsilateral vagus (CNX) or recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Imaging Pitfalls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Goto T et al: Unilateral vocal fold adductor paralysis after tracheal intubation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 45(1):178-81, 2018
                                                                      2. İrkörücü O: Approach to the assessment of vocal cord movement by ultrasonography. World J Surg. 42(4):1214, 2018
                                                                      3. Kwon M et al: Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis in older patients: characteristics in the disease course and implication of computed tomography for evaluation of etiology. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 127(11):823-8, 2018
                                                                      4. Klee K et al: Unilateral recurrent nerve palsy and cardiovascular disease - Ortner's syndrome. J Cardiol Cases. 15(3):88-90, 2017
                                                                      5. Lynch J et al: Management of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after thyroid surgery: a review. Head Neck. 39(7):1470-8, 2017
                                                                      6. Vachha B et al: Losing your voice: etiologies and imaging features of vocal fold paralysis. J Clin Imaging Sci. 3:15, 2013
                                                                      7. Heikkinen J et al: Cardiovocal syndrome (Ortner's syndrome) associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and giant pulmonary artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Med. 2012:230736, 2012
                                                                      8. Kwong Y et al: Radiology of vocal cord palsy. Clin Radiol. 67(11):1108-14, 2012
                                                                      9. Paquette CM et al: Unilateral vocal cord paralysis: a review of CT findings, mediastinal causes, and the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Radiographics. 32(3):721-40, 2012
                                                                      10. Song SW et al: CT evaluation of vocal cord paralysis due to thoracic diseases: a 10-year retrospective study. Yonsei Med J. 52(5):831-7, 2011
                                                                      11. Garcia MM et al: Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis. Radiol Bras. 42(5):321-326, 2009
                                                                      12. Kumar VA et al: CT assessment of vocal cord medialization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(8):1643-6, 2006
                                                                      13. Chin SC et al: Using CT to localize side and level of vocal cord paralysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(4):1165-70, 2003
                                                                      14. Aydin K et al: Case report: bilateral vocal cord paralysis caused by cervical spinal osteophytes. Br J Radiol. 75(900):990-33, 2002
                                                                      15. Miles KA: Ultrasound demonstration of vocal cord movements. Br J Radiol. 62(741):871-2, 1989