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Wallerian Degeneration
Santhosh Gaddikeri, MD; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Wallerian degeneration (WaD)
        • Definitions

          • Progressive secondary anterograde degeneration of axons and their myelin sheaths caused by interruption of axonal integrity or damage to neuron

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Zuo M et al: Wallerian degeneration in experimental focal cortical ischemia. Brain Res Bull. 149:194-202, 2019
                                    2. Shen Y et al: Bilateral wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles secondary to pontine infarction: a case series. J Neurol Sci. 388:182-5, 2018
                                    3. Zhang ZY et al: Clinical and radiological features of wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles secondary to pontine infarction. Chin Med J (Engl). 131(6):665-71, 2018
                                    4. Chen YJ et al: Wallerian degeneration beyond the corticospinal tracts: conventional and advanced MRI findings. J Neuroimaging. 27(3):272-80, 2017
                                    5. Jimenez-Gomez A et al: Teaching neuroimages: wallerian degeneration in evolving pediatric stroke. Neurology. 89(13):e166-7, 2017
                                    6. Gandhi K et al: Progressive wallerian degeneration of the corpus callosal splenium in a patient with alexia without agraphia: advanced MR findings. Neuroradiol J. 27(6):653-6, 2014
                                    7. Kleinman JT: Early wallerian degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging: underappreciated but highly relevant. Dev Med Child Neurol. 55(2):104-5, 2013
                                    8. Saksena S et al: The corpus callosum wallerian degeneration in the unilateral brain tumors: evaluation with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). J Clin Diagn Res. 7(2):320-5, 2013
                                    9. Venkatasubramanian C et al: Natural history and prognostic value of corticospinal tract wallerian degeneration in intracerebral hemorrhage. J Am Heart Assoc. 2(4):e000090, 2013
                                    10. Domi T et al: Corticospinal tract pre-wallerian degeneration: a novel outcome predictor for pediatric stroke on acute MRI. Stroke. 40(3):780-7, 2009
                                    11. Liang Z et al: Progression of pathological changes in the middle cerebellar peduncle by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with lesser motor gains after pontine infarction. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 23(7):692-8, 2009
                                    12. Oh MY et al: Ipsilateral wallerian degeneration of the distal optic radiations after infarction at their root. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(2):146-8, 2009
                                    13. Yu C et al: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study on wallerian degeneration of corticospinal tract after motor pathway stroke. Neuroimage. 47(2):451-8, 2009
                                    14. De Simone T et al: Wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar fibers. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(5):1062-5, 2005
                                    15. Hunt D et al: ATF3 upregulation in glia during wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter. BMC Neurosci. 5:9, 2004
                                    16. Uchino A et al: Transient detection of early wallerian degeneration on diffusion-weighted MRI after an acute cerebrovascular accident. Neuroradiology. 46(3):183-8, 2004
                                    17. Casanova B et al: Evidence of wallerian degeneration in normal appearing white matter in the early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a HMRS study. J Neurol. 250(1):22-8, 2003
                                    18. Mazumdar A et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging of acute corticospinal tract injury preceding wallerian degeneration in the maturing human brain. Am J Neuroradiol 24:1057-66, 2003
                                    19. Pierpaoli C et al: Water diffusion changes in wallerian degeneration and their dependence on white matter architecture. Neuroimage. 13(6 Pt 1):1174-85, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Wallerian degeneration (WaD)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Progressive secondary anterograde degeneration of axons and their myelin sheaths caused by interruption of axonal integrity or damage to neuron

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Zuo M et al: Wallerian degeneration in experimental focal cortical ischemia. Brain Res Bull. 149:194-202, 2019
                                                                      2. Shen Y et al: Bilateral wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles secondary to pontine infarction: a case series. J Neurol Sci. 388:182-5, 2018
                                                                      3. Zhang ZY et al: Clinical and radiological features of wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles secondary to pontine infarction. Chin Med J (Engl). 131(6):665-71, 2018
                                                                      4. Chen YJ et al: Wallerian degeneration beyond the corticospinal tracts: conventional and advanced MRI findings. J Neuroimaging. 27(3):272-80, 2017
                                                                      5. Jimenez-Gomez A et al: Teaching neuroimages: wallerian degeneration in evolving pediatric stroke. Neurology. 89(13):e166-7, 2017
                                                                      6. Gandhi K et al: Progressive wallerian degeneration of the corpus callosal splenium in a patient with alexia without agraphia: advanced MR findings. Neuroradiol J. 27(6):653-6, 2014
                                                                      7. Kleinman JT: Early wallerian degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging: underappreciated but highly relevant. Dev Med Child Neurol. 55(2):104-5, 2013
                                                                      8. Saksena S et al: The corpus callosum wallerian degeneration in the unilateral brain tumors: evaluation with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). J Clin Diagn Res. 7(2):320-5, 2013
                                                                      9. Venkatasubramanian C et al: Natural history and prognostic value of corticospinal tract wallerian degeneration in intracerebral hemorrhage. J Am Heart Assoc. 2(4):e000090, 2013
                                                                      10. Domi T et al: Corticospinal tract pre-wallerian degeneration: a novel outcome predictor for pediatric stroke on acute MRI. Stroke. 40(3):780-7, 2009
                                                                      11. Liang Z et al: Progression of pathological changes in the middle cerebellar peduncle by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with lesser motor gains after pontine infarction. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 23(7):692-8, 2009
                                                                      12. Oh MY et al: Ipsilateral wallerian degeneration of the distal optic radiations after infarction at their root. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(2):146-8, 2009
                                                                      13. Yu C et al: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study on wallerian degeneration of corticospinal tract after motor pathway stroke. Neuroimage. 47(2):451-8, 2009
                                                                      14. De Simone T et al: Wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar fibers. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(5):1062-5, 2005
                                                                      15. Hunt D et al: ATF3 upregulation in glia during wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter. BMC Neurosci. 5:9, 2004
                                                                      16. Uchino A et al: Transient detection of early wallerian degeneration on diffusion-weighted MRI after an acute cerebrovascular accident. Neuroradiology. 46(3):183-8, 2004
                                                                      17. Casanova B et al: Evidence of wallerian degeneration in normal appearing white matter in the early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a HMRS study. J Neurol. 250(1):22-8, 2003
                                                                      18. Mazumdar A et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging of acute corticospinal tract injury preceding wallerian degeneration in the maturing human brain. Am J Neuroradiol 24:1057-66, 2003
                                                                      19. Pierpaoli C et al: Water diffusion changes in wallerian degeneration and their dependence on white matter architecture. Neuroimage. 13(6 Pt 1):1174-85, 2001