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Warfarin (Coumadin) Embryopathy
Janice L. B. Byrne, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Fetal warfarin (Coumadin) syndrome
            • Definitions

              • Fetal effects of early gestational exposure to warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            Selected References

                            1. Basu S et al: Low-dose maternal warfarin intake resulting in fetal warfarin syndrome: In search for a safe anticoagulant regimen during pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 106(2):142-7, 2015
                            2. Silveira DB et al: Importance of a multidisciplinary approach and monitoring in fetal warfarin syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 167(6):1294-9, 2015
                            3. McLintock C: Anticoagulant choices in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: balancing maternal and fetal risks--the difference the dose makes. Thromb Res. 131 Suppl 1:S8-10, 2013
                            4. Xie Y et al: Phenocopy of warfarin syndrome in an infant born to a mother with sickle cell anemia and severe transfusional iron overload. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 35(6):e265-8, 2013
                            5. Starling LD et al: Fetal warfarin syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                            6. Vijayan V et al: Pregnancy outcomes compared in women with mechanical heart valve replacements anticoagulated with warfarin and enoxaparin in pregnancy. Med J Malaysia. 67(6):591-4, 2012
                            7. Keppler-Noreuil KM et al: Binder phenotype: associated findings and etiologic mechanisms. J Craniofac Surg. 21(5):1339-45, 2010
                            8. Masamoto H et al: Warfarin-associated fetal intracranial hemorrhage in woman with mitral valve replacements: a case report. Am J Perinatol. 26(8):597-600, 2009
                            9. McLintock C et al: Maternal complications and pregnancy outcome in women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves treated with enoxaparin. BJOG. 116(12):1585-92, 2009
                            10. Yinon Y et al: Use of low molecular weight heparin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. Am J Cardiol. 104(9):1259-63, 2009
                            11. Oswal K et al: Warfarin-induced fetal intracranial subdural hematoma. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(7):451-3, 2008
                            12. Howe AM et al: The growth of the nasal septum in the 6-9 week period of foetal development--Warfarin embryopathy offers a new insight into prenatal facial development. Aust Dent J. 49(4):171-6, 2004
                            13. Chan KY et al: Warfarin embryopathy. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 22(4):277-83, 2003
                            14. Blickstein D et al: The risk of fetal loss associated with Warfarin anticoagulation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 78(3):221-5, 2002
                            15. Cotrufo M et al: Risk of warfarin during pregnancy with mechanical valve prostheses. Obstet Gynecol. 99(1):35-40, 2002
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Pathology

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Fetal warfarin (Coumadin) syndrome
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Fetal effects of early gestational exposure to warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Basu S et al: Low-dose maternal warfarin intake resulting in fetal warfarin syndrome: In search for a safe anticoagulant regimen during pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 106(2):142-7, 2015
                                                      2. Silveira DB et al: Importance of a multidisciplinary approach and monitoring in fetal warfarin syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 167(6):1294-9, 2015
                                                      3. McLintock C: Anticoagulant choices in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: balancing maternal and fetal risks--the difference the dose makes. Thromb Res. 131 Suppl 1:S8-10, 2013
                                                      4. Xie Y et al: Phenocopy of warfarin syndrome in an infant born to a mother with sickle cell anemia and severe transfusional iron overload. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 35(6):e265-8, 2013
                                                      5. Starling LD et al: Fetal warfarin syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                                                      6. Vijayan V et al: Pregnancy outcomes compared in women with mechanical heart valve replacements anticoagulated with warfarin and enoxaparin in pregnancy. Med J Malaysia. 67(6):591-4, 2012
                                                      7. Keppler-Noreuil KM et al: Binder phenotype: associated findings and etiologic mechanisms. J Craniofac Surg. 21(5):1339-45, 2010
                                                      8. Masamoto H et al: Warfarin-associated fetal intracranial hemorrhage in woman with mitral valve replacements: a case report. Am J Perinatol. 26(8):597-600, 2009
                                                      9. McLintock C et al: Maternal complications and pregnancy outcome in women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves treated with enoxaparin. BJOG. 116(12):1585-92, 2009
                                                      10. Yinon Y et al: Use of low molecular weight heparin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. Am J Cardiol. 104(9):1259-63, 2009
                                                      11. Oswal K et al: Warfarin-induced fetal intracranial subdural hematoma. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(7):451-3, 2008
                                                      12. Howe AM et al: The growth of the nasal septum in the 6-9 week period of foetal development--Warfarin embryopathy offers a new insight into prenatal facial development. Aust Dent J. 49(4):171-6, 2004
                                                      13. Chan KY et al: Warfarin embryopathy. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 22(4):277-83, 2003
                                                      14. Blickstein D et al: The risk of fetal loss associated with Warfarin anticoagulation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 78(3):221-5, 2002
                                                      15. Cotrufo M et al: Risk of warfarin during pregnancy with mechanical valve prostheses. Obstet Gynecol. 99(1):35-40, 2002