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West Nile Virus Encephalitis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • West Nile virus (WNV), West Nile fever (WNF), West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)
          • Definitions

            • Mosquito-transmitted acute meningoencephalitis caused by West Nile arbovirus

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                Selected References

                                1. Yu A et al: Clinical spectrum of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Neurohospitalist. 10(1):43-7, 2020
                                2. Arahata Y et al: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging changes in Japanese encephalitis. Brain Dev. 41(8):731-4, 2019
                                3. Martinovic V et al: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in a patient infected with West Nile virus. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 32:19-22, 2019
                                4. Peng BH et al: West Nile virus induced cell death in the central nervous system. Pathogens. 8(4), 2019
                                5. Daep CA et al: Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus. J Neurovirol. 20(6):539-60, 2014
                                6. Racsa L et al: Clinical features of West Nile virus epidemic in Dallas, Texas, 2012. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 78(2):132-6, 2014
                                7. Handique SK: Viral infections of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(4):777-94, vii, 2011
                                8. Blitvich BJ: Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus. Anim Health Res Rev. 9(1):71-86, 2008
                                9. Kramer LD et al: West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 6(2):171-81, 2007
                                10. Ali M et al: West Nile virus infection: MR imaging findings in the nervous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(2):289-97, 2005
                                11. Kraushaar G et al: West Nile Virus: a case report with flaccid paralysis and cervical spinal cord: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(1):26-9, 2005
                                12. Petropoulou KA et al: West Nile virus meningoencephalitis: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(8):1986-95, 2005
                                13. Agid R et al: MR diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of West Nile virus encephalitis. Neurology. 61(12):1821-3, 2003
                                14. Madden K: West Nile virus infection and its neurological manifestations. Clin Med Res. 1(2):145-50, 2003
                                Related Anatomy
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Abbreviations

                                          • West Nile virus (WNV), West Nile fever (WNF), West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Mosquito-transmitted acute meningoencephalitis caused by West Nile arbovirus

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Yu A et al: Clinical spectrum of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Neurohospitalist. 10(1):43-7, 2020
                                                              2. Arahata Y et al: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging changes in Japanese encephalitis. Brain Dev. 41(8):731-4, 2019
                                                              3. Martinovic V et al: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in a patient infected with West Nile virus. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 32:19-22, 2019
                                                              4. Peng BH et al: West Nile virus induced cell death in the central nervous system. Pathogens. 8(4), 2019
                                                              5. Daep CA et al: Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus. J Neurovirol. 20(6):539-60, 2014
                                                              6. Racsa L et al: Clinical features of West Nile virus epidemic in Dallas, Texas, 2012. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 78(2):132-6, 2014
                                                              7. Handique SK: Viral infections of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(4):777-94, vii, 2011
                                                              8. Blitvich BJ: Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus. Anim Health Res Rev. 9(1):71-86, 2008
                                                              9. Kramer LD et al: West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 6(2):171-81, 2007
                                                              10. Ali M et al: West Nile virus infection: MR imaging findings in the nervous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(2):289-97, 2005
                                                              11. Kraushaar G et al: West Nile Virus: a case report with flaccid paralysis and cervical spinal cord: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(1):26-9, 2005
                                                              12. Petropoulou KA et al: West Nile virus meningoencephalitis: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(8):1986-95, 2005
                                                              13. Agid R et al: MR diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of West Nile virus encephalitis. Neurology. 61(12):1821-3, 2003
                                                              14. Madden K: West Nile virus infection and its neurological manifestations. Clin Med Res. 1(2):145-50, 2003