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Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis
Siva P. Raman, MD; Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC)
          • Synonyms

            • Fibroxanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; xanthogranulomatous cholangitis
          • Definitions

            • Rare inflammatory disorder of gallbladder (GB) characterized by accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and fibrous tissue

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Makimoto S et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a review of 31 patients. Surg Endosc. 35(7):3874-80, 2020
                                            2. Rahman J et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a diagnostic challenge for radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists. Cureus. 12(8):e10007, 2020
                                            3. Reghunath A et al: Chronic gallbladder wall thickening: is it always malignancy? SA J Radiol. 24(1):1844, 2020
                                            4. Saritas AG et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a rare gallbladder pathology from a single-center perspective. Ann Surg Treat Res. 99(4):230-7, 2020
                                            5. Suzuki H: Specific radiological findings, if present, can offer high accuracy for the differentiation of Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. Ann Transl Med. 8(11):662, 2020
                                            6. Lee NK et al: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for non-neoplastic conditions in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions: pearls and potential pitfalls in imaging interpretation. Abdom Imaging. 40(3):643-62, 2014
                                            7. Revzin MV et al: The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes. Abdom Imaging.40(2):385-99, 2014
                                            8. Kang TW et al: Differentiating xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis from wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer: added value of diffusion-weighted MRI. Clin Radiol. 68(10):992-1001, 2013
                                            9. Zhao F et al: CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: an analysis of consecutive 49 cases. Eur J Radiol. 82(9):1391-7, 2013
                                            10. Arora A et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: characteristic CT findings. Indian J Gastroenterol. 31(2):85, 2012
                                            11. Shetty GS et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: sonographic and CT features and differentiation from gallbladder carcinoma: a pictorial essay. Jpn J Radiol. 30(6):480-5, 2012
                                            12. Goshima S et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: diagnostic performance of CT to differentiate from gallbladder cancer. Eur J Radiol. 74(3):e79-83, 2010
                                            13. Kim JH et al: Is xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis the most difficult for laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Hepatogastroenterology. 56(91-92):597-601, 2009
                                            14. Uchiyama K et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: the use of preoperative CT findings to differentiate it from gallbladder carcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 16(3):333-8, 2009
                                            15. Klarenbeek BR et al: Percutaneous gallbladder drainage for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 18(5):506-7, 2008
                                            16. Kwon AH et al: Simultaneous presence of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. J Gastroenterol. 42(8):703-4, 2007
                                            17. Yang T et al: Surgical treatment of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: experience in 33 cases. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 6(5):504-8, 2007
                                            18. Shuto R et al: CT and MR imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: correlation with pathologic findings. Eur Radiol. 14(3):440-6, 2004
                                            19. Iannicelli E et al: A case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: integrated US-CT imaging. Radiol Med. 104(1-2):106-10, 2002
                                            20. Parra JA et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: clinical, sonographic, and CT findings in 26 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(4):979-83, 2000
                                            21. Kim PN et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: radiologic findings with histologic correlation that focuses on intramural nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):949-53, 1999
                                            22. Won YH et al: Knuckle pad-like keratoderma: a new cutaneous side reaction induced by tegafur. Int J Dermatol. 37(4):315-7, 1998
                                            23. Chun KA et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: CT features with emphasis on differentiation from gallbladder carcinoma. Radiology. 203(1):93-7, 1997
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Fibroxanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; xanthogranulomatous cholangitis
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Rare inflammatory disorder of gallbladder (GB) characterized by accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and fibrous tissue

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Makimoto S et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a review of 31 patients. Surg Endosc. 35(7):3874-80, 2020
                                                                                      2. Rahman J et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a diagnostic challenge for radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists. Cureus. 12(8):e10007, 2020
                                                                                      3. Reghunath A et al: Chronic gallbladder wall thickening: is it always malignancy? SA J Radiol. 24(1):1844, 2020
                                                                                      4. Saritas AG et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a rare gallbladder pathology from a single-center perspective. Ann Surg Treat Res. 99(4):230-7, 2020
                                                                                      5. Suzuki H: Specific radiological findings, if present, can offer high accuracy for the differentiation of Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. Ann Transl Med. 8(11):662, 2020
                                                                                      6. Lee NK et al: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for non-neoplastic conditions in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions: pearls and potential pitfalls in imaging interpretation. Abdom Imaging. 40(3):643-62, 2014
                                                                                      7. Revzin MV et al: The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes. Abdom Imaging.40(2):385-99, 2014
                                                                                      8. Kang TW et al: Differentiating xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis from wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer: added value of diffusion-weighted MRI. Clin Radiol. 68(10):992-1001, 2013
                                                                                      9. Zhao F et al: CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: an analysis of consecutive 49 cases. Eur J Radiol. 82(9):1391-7, 2013
                                                                                      10. Arora A et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: characteristic CT findings. Indian J Gastroenterol. 31(2):85, 2012
                                                                                      11. Shetty GS et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: sonographic and CT features and differentiation from gallbladder carcinoma: a pictorial essay. Jpn J Radiol. 30(6):480-5, 2012
                                                                                      12. Goshima S et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: diagnostic performance of CT to differentiate from gallbladder cancer. Eur J Radiol. 74(3):e79-83, 2010
                                                                                      13. Kim JH et al: Is xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis the most difficult for laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Hepatogastroenterology. 56(91-92):597-601, 2009
                                                                                      14. Uchiyama K et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: the use of preoperative CT findings to differentiate it from gallbladder carcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 16(3):333-8, 2009
                                                                                      15. Klarenbeek BR et al: Percutaneous gallbladder drainage for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 18(5):506-7, 2008
                                                                                      16. Kwon AH et al: Simultaneous presence of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. J Gastroenterol. 42(8):703-4, 2007
                                                                                      17. Yang T et al: Surgical treatment of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: experience in 33 cases. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 6(5):504-8, 2007
                                                                                      18. Shuto R et al: CT and MR imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: correlation with pathologic findings. Eur Radiol. 14(3):440-6, 2004
                                                                                      19. Iannicelli E et al: A case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: integrated US-CT imaging. Radiol Med. 104(1-2):106-10, 2002
                                                                                      20. Parra JA et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: clinical, sonographic, and CT findings in 26 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(4):979-83, 2000
                                                                                      21. Kim PN et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: radiologic findings with histologic correlation that focuses on intramural nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):949-53, 1999
                                                                                      22. Won YH et al: Knuckle pad-like keratoderma: a new cutaneous side reaction induced by tegafur. Int J Dermatol. 37(4):315-7, 1998
                                                                                      23. Chun KA et al: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: CT features with emphasis on differentiation from gallbladder carcinoma. Radiology. 203(1):93-7, 1997