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Xanthoma
Stephanie A. Bernard, MD; Catherine C. Roberts, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)
          • Definitions

            • Nonneoplastic collection of lipid-laden histocytes due to hyperlipoproteinemia

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Zahradnik TM et al: Can Achilles tendon xanthoma be distinguished from Achilles tendinopathy using Dixon method MRI? A cross-sectional exploratory study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 22(1):627, 2021
                                      2. Gerrish AC et al: Case 239: cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Radiology. 282(3):916-21, 2017
                                      3. Abe R et al: Spinal form cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patient with long spinal cord lesion. J Spinal Cord Med. 39(6):726-9, 2016
                                      4. Maharaj S et al: Familial hypercholesterolemia presenting with multiple nodules of the hands and elbow. Clin Case Rep. 3(6):411-4, 2015
                                      5. Weiss SW et al: Benign fibrohistiocytic tumors. In Weiss SW et al: Enzinger and Weiss' Soft Tissue Tumors. 5th ed. Elsevier. 355-8, 2008
                                      6. Kransdorf MJ et al: Benign fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumors. In Kransdorf MJ et al: Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 236-40, 2006
                                      7. Barkhof F et al: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: the spectrum of imaging findings and the correlation with neuropathologic findings. Radiology. 217(3):869-76, 2000
                                      8. Patni N et al: Genetics and dyslipidemia. EndoText, 2000
                                      9. Bureau NJ et al: Sonography of Achilles tendon xanthomas in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(3):745-9, 1998
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Nonneoplastic collection of lipid-laden histocytes due to hyperlipoproteinemia

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Zahradnik TM et al: Can Achilles tendon xanthoma be distinguished from Achilles tendinopathy using Dixon method MRI? A cross-sectional exploratory study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 22(1):627, 2021
                                                                          2. Gerrish AC et al: Case 239: cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Radiology. 282(3):916-21, 2017
                                                                          3. Abe R et al: Spinal form cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patient with long spinal cord lesion. J Spinal Cord Med. 39(6):726-9, 2016
                                                                          4. Maharaj S et al: Familial hypercholesterolemia presenting with multiple nodules of the hands and elbow. Clin Case Rep. 3(6):411-4, 2015
                                                                          5. Weiss SW et al: Benign fibrohistiocytic tumors. In Weiss SW et al: Enzinger and Weiss' Soft Tissue Tumors. 5th ed. Elsevier. 355-8, 2008
                                                                          6. Kransdorf MJ et al: Benign fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumors. In Kransdorf MJ et al: Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 236-40, 2006
                                                                          7. Barkhof F et al: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: the spectrum of imaging findings and the correlation with neuropathologic findings. Radiology. 217(3):869-76, 2000
                                                                          8. Patni N et al: Genetics and dyslipidemia. EndoText, 2000
                                                                          9. Bureau NJ et al: Sonography of Achilles tendon xanthomas in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(3):745-9, 1998